WATER CYCLE ACTIVATION 4-5

WATER CYCLE ACTIVATION

 

WATER CYCLE ACTIVATION

Learning Description

Students will examine the parts of the water cycle through theatre. After a group of students demonstrates a tableau of the water cycle, the class will break up into groups to enact each part of the cycle and attach vocabulary inherent to each section. The room will be flowing with the water cycle coming to life!

 

Learning Targets

GRADE BAND: 4-5
CONTENT FOCUS: THEATRE & SCIENCE
LESSON DOWNLOADS:

Download PDF of this Lesson

"I Can" Statements

“I Can…”

  • I can work with others to enact the parts of the water cycle.
  • I can demonstrate my understanding of water conservation methods using pantomime.

Essential Questions

  • How can acting deepen understanding of the water cycle?
  • How can I demonstrate my understanding of water conservation practices using pantomime?

 

Georgia Standards

Curriculum Standards

Grade 4

S4E3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to demonstrate the water cycle.

  1. b. Develop models to illustrate multiple pathways water may take during thewater cycle (evaporation, condensation, and precipitation)

     

     

    Arts Standards

    Grade 4

    TAES4.3: Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situationsand environments.

     

     

     

     

    South Carolina Standards

    Curriculum Standards

    EARTH AND HUMAN ACTIVITY (ESS3)

    5-ESS3-1. Evaluate potential solutions to problems that individual communities face in protecting the Earth’s resources and environment.

     

    Arts Standards

    Anchor Standard 3: I can act in improvised scenes and written scripts.

     

     

    Key Vocabulary

    Content Vocabulary

      • Clouds – Accumulations of particles of water or ice suspended in the air that are visible above the earth’s surface 

       

      • Collection – The process by which water that returns to the earth’s surface as precipitation gathers in bodies of water; collection happens in oceans, lakes, rivers, and in accumulations of groundwater.

       

      • Condensation – The process by which a gas turns into a liquid; when vapor in the atmosphere gets cold it changes from gas back into liquid in clouds.

       

      • Conservation – Responsible and judicious use of a resource in a way that avoids waste.

       

      • Cycle – Something that happens over and over again in the same way
      • Evaporation – The process by which a liquid becomes a gas; in the water cycle, liquid water evaporates and turns into water vapor. 

       

      • Gas – A substance that is able to expand freely to fill the whole of a container, having no fixed shape and no fixed volume; water in gas form is water vapor.

       

      • Groundwater – Water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.

       

      • Liquid – A substance that flows freely without a firm or consistent shape, but of constant volume: water in liquid form is water.
      • Precipitation – The process by which water returns to the surface of the earth in liquid or solid form; precipitation takes the form of rain, snow, sleet or hail.

       

      • Solid – A substance that is firm and stable in shape; not liquid or fluid; water in solid form is ice.
      • States of Matter – The forms in which matter can exist: solid, liquid, and gas 

       

      • Transpiration – The passage of water vapor from a living body into the atmosphere; plants transpire through their leaves; people transpire through sweat.

     

    Arts Vocabulary

      • Act – To pretend; to play a role

       

      • Collaboration – Working together, teamwork

       

      • Pantomime – Pretending to hold, use or touch something that you are not really holding, using, or touching; a form of silent theatre

      Tableau – A frozen picture created by actors (plural: Tableaux)

     

     

    Materials

    • 10 sets of photos of the four stages in the water cycle (Condensation, Evaporation, Precipitation, Collection). These should each have two holes punched in top corners and a string through them so that students can wear each photo around their neck to allow their hands and body to move freely.  The photos should have Velcro to attach the words below.
    • 10 sets of paper strips with the following words: Condensation, Evaporation, Precipitation, Rain, Snow, Sleet, Hail, Groundwater, Transpiration, Vapor, Clouds. Each strip should have Velcro on the back so that they can be attached to the pictures above.

    Index cards with the conservation methods written on them. One method for each card.

     

    Instructional Design

    Opening/Activating Strategy

    WATER CYCLE MOVEMENTS

    • Have students stand up in place.  Teach and lead them through movement sequences for four stages of the water cycle, coordinated with articulating the words.  Describe what each movement signifies:
      • Evaporation – 

    “E” – arms out like a body of water circled in front of belly (water)

    “vap” – fingers intertwined and rolling like a body of water (liquid)

    “or” – palms flat out like the sun’s rays (sun)

    “a” - fingers wiggles up in front of face (vapors) 

    “tion” – fingers wiggle up above head to disappear (gas)

    • Condensation  – 

    “Con” – wiggly fingers above head (gas)

    “den” – shiver and hands above heads shake (cold)

    “sa” – hands wave fluidly above head (water)

    “tion” – hands grasp together above head (cloud) 

    • Precipitation –

    “Pre” – arms circled above head like a cloud

    “ci” – wiggles fingers down like rain in front of face (rain)

    “pi” – hands blink open, closed like snowflakes (snow)

    “ta” – punch right fist down (sleet)

    “tion” – punch left fist down then left fist (hail) 

    • Collection – 

    “Col” – arms rounded out in front (lake)

    “lec” – hands out like waves (ocean)

    “tion” – hands moving down low (groundwater)

     

     

    Work Session

        • ACTIVATING THE WATER CYCLE
          • Introduce the concept of tableau – a frozen picture created by actors.  Explain that the class will be creating tableaux of the water cycle.
          • Invite four students to the front of the class.  Work with the students, with suggestions from the rest of the class, to create a tableau that portrays the water cycle.  
            • Remind the class that the water cycle is not linear, so the students should not be standing in a line. 
            • Remind them that there is no proper beginning or end – it’s a continuous cycle.
            • Encourage the students to be creative in determining how they can use their bodies to convey the cyclical nature of the processes.  As appropriate to the class rules and culture, allow students to take positions up on chairs or down on the floor.
          • Have students wear the photo that correlates with their part of the cycle.
          • Ask other students to come up and velcro the appropriate vocabulary word to the appropriate part of the cycle where it belongs.
          • Activate the cycle by having students adopt movements – heads, hands, arms, legs, full bodies – that convey what is happening in their part of the water cycle, and add in any appropriate sounds. Remind students of the motions they used at the beginning of class.

           

          GROUP TABLEAUX

          • Divide the class into groups of four.  Have each group create and then activate their own tableau of the water cycle.  Encourage them to find different ways, from what was modeled for the class, to position themselves and move for their parts of the water cycle, and to interact with others in their group as well.
          • Give each group the photo visuals and ask each person to wear one part of the cycle.  Then have them attach the appropriate vocabulary to their part.
          • Have groups show their cycles to the rest of the class.
          • Reflect on the different interpretations of the different groups, and how each conveyed concepts about the water cycle.

           

          WATER CONSERVATION

          • Ask the class: “Do you think that we will have water forever?”  Explain: “Water does keep cycling but we can misuse and overuse water and some places are in danger of drought.”
          • Remind students that, “Water is one of our most important resources.”  Ask students: 
            • “Why is it so important?  What do we use water for?  Is it important to other organisms as well?”  
            • Be sure to discuss that we use water to produce and prepare food, clean our bodies, wash our dishes and clothes, process our waste, and manufacture and transport goods; we use it for recreation, and to produce hydroelectric power.  
            • As individuals, we use large amounts of water:  it is estimated that the average American uses around 180 gallons of water a day.
          • Discuss Conservation – the responsible and judicious use of a resource in a way that avoids waste.
          • Introduce and discuss the following list of water conservation practices: 
          1. Avoid watering the lawn or garden between 10 am and 6 pm.
          2. Take shorter showers.
          3. Wash the car over the lawn instead of the driveway.
          4. Turn off the water when brushing teeth. 
          5. Use wastewater from cooking to water plants.
          6. Run the dishwasher and clothes washer only when full.
          7. Keep water in the refrigerator for cold water.
          8. Fix leaky faucets and hoses.
          9. Do not use the toilet as a garbage can.

          Brainstorm other ideas that the students might have.  Put those on additional cards.

           

          WATER CONSERVATION PANTOMIMES

          • Introduce Pantomime - pretending to hold, use or touch something that you are not really holding, using, or touching; a form of silent theatre.
          • Model and practice a simple pantomime activity (e.g., sweeping the floor, eating a sandwich, swinging a baseball bat, etc.).  
            • Encourage students to think about the size, weight and shape of the objects in their pantomimes; to be specific with their movements; and to include facial expressions.
          • Have students come up one at a time, or in small groups, and pick a card with a water conservation practice on it.  
            • Have the individual or small group pantomime the action on their card. They should not speak during the pantomimes.
          • Have other students guess which water conservation practice they are showing.  After guessing, have the class describe the specific aspects of the pantomime that conveyed the water conservation practice.

         

         

        Closing Reflection

        • Review the words and movements for the parts of the water cycle.
        • Review the drama strategies used – Movement, Tableau, and Pantomime.
        • Ask students to reflect on how their thinking about water and the water cycle has changed through the lesson.
        • Ask students to discuss steps they might take in their lives to use water responsibly.

         

         

        Assessments

        Formative

        Teacher will assess understanding of the water cycle and methods of water conservation through the opening activity, class discussion, and observation.

           

          Summative

          • CHECKLIST: 
            • Students can accurately identify the key components of the water cycle and match vocabulary words with steps of the water cycle.
            • Students can work together cooperatively to create tableaux.
            • Students can use their bodies expressively, and create tableaus with a variety of angles, shapes, levels, and facial expressions.
            • Students can pantomime water conservation practices silently and with detailed movements and facial expressions

             

            • Have students draw a diagram of the water cycle, with each part labeled accurately.
            • Have students draw a picture, using stick figures in particular poses, to portray their group’s water cycle tableau.
            • Have students write a paragraph about their own water use and how they plan to incorporate water conservation practices into their daily lives.

           

          Differentiation

           

          Acceleration: 

          • Rather than using predetermined movements for the activator, have students collectively come up with the movements for each syllable.
          • When adding movement to the tableaux, have students speak a sentence as their part of the water cycle (e.g., “I am precipitation – I love raining down on the mountains and plains, and on cities and towns and making everyone have indoor recess!”)

           

          Remediation: 

          • Encourage groups to come up with alternate ideas for the water cycle tableaux, but allow them to replicate what was done in the model tableau.
          • Rather than have students guess each other’s pantomimes, work together as a class to develop a short pantomime sequence for each water conservation practice card.

           

           ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

           

          *This integrated lesson provides differentiated ideas and activities for educators that are aligned to a sampling of standards. Standards referenced at the time of publishing may differ based on each state’s adoption of new standards.

           

          Ideas contributed by:  Barry Stewart Mann and Susie Spear Purcell

           

          Revised and copyright:  January 2024 @ ArtsNOW

          WATER CYCLE ACTIVATION 6

          WATER CYCLE ACTIVATION

           

          WATER CYCLE ACTIVATION

          Learning Description

          Students will examine the parts of the water cycle through theatre. After a group of students demonstrates a tableau of the water cycle, the class will break up into groups to enact each part of the cycle and attach vocabulary inherent to each section. The room will be flowing with the water cycle coming to life!

           

          Learning Targets

          GRADE BAND: 6
          CONTENT FOCUS: THEATRE & SCIENCE
          LESSON DOWNLOADS:

          Download PDF of this Lesson

          "I Can" Statements

          “I Can…”

          • I can work with others to enact the parts of the water cycle.
          • I can demonstrate my understanding of water conservation methods using pantomime.

          Essential Questions

          • How can acting deepen understanding of the water cycle?
          • How can I demonstrate my understanding of water conservation practices using pantomime?

           

          Georgia Standards

          Curriculum Standards

          Grade 6

          S6E3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to recognize the significant role of water in Earth processes.

          1. Plan and carry out an investigation to illustrate the role of the sun’s energy in atmospheric conditions that lead to the cycling of water. (Clarification statement: The water cycle should include evaporation, condensation, precipitation, transpiration, infiltration, groundwater, and runoff.)

          S6E6. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the uses and conservation of various natural resources and how they impact the Earth.

          1. Design and evaluate solutions for sustaining the quality and supply of natural resources such as water, soil, and air.

           

           

           

          Arts Standards

          TA6.PR.1 Act by communicating and sustaining roles in formal and informal environments.

           

           

           

           

          South Carolina Standards

          Curriculum Standards

          6-ESS2-4. Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth’s systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.

           

          Arts Standards

          Anchor Standard 3: I can act in improvised scenes and written scripts.

           

           

          Key Vocabulary

          Content Vocabulary

            • Clouds – Accumulations of particles of water or ice suspended in the air that are visible above the earth’s surface 

             

            • Collection – The process by which water that returns to the earth’s surface as precipitation gathers in bodies of water; collection happens in oceans, lakes, rivers, and in accumulations of groundwater.

             

            • Condensation – The process by which a gas turns into a liquid; when vapor in the atmosphere gets cold it changes from gas back into liquid in clouds.

             

            • Conservation – Responsible and judicious use of a resource in a way that avoids waste.

             

            • Cycle – Something that happens over and over again in the same way
            • Evaporation – The process by which a liquid becomes a gas; in the water cycle, liquid water evaporates and turns into water vapor. 

             

            • Gas – A substance that is able to expand freely to fill the whole of a container, having no fixed shape and no fixed volume; water in gas form is water vapor.

             

            • Groundwater – Water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.

             

            • Liquid – A substance that flows freely without a firm or consistent shape, but of constant volume: water in liquid form is water.
            • Precipitation – The process by which water returns to the surface of the earth in liquid or solid form; precipitation takes the form of rain, snow, sleet or hail.

             

            • Solid – A substance that is firm and stable in shape; not liquid or fluid; water in solid form is ice.
            • States of Matter – The forms in which matter can exist: solid, liquid, and gas 

             

            • Transpiration – The passage of water vapor from a living body into the atmosphere; plants transpire through their leaves; people transpire through sweat.

           

          Arts Vocabulary

            • Act – To pretend; to play a role

             

            • Collaboration – Working together, teamwork

             

            • Pantomime – Pretending to hold, use or touch something that you are not really holding, using, or touching; a form of silent theatre

            Tableau – A frozen picture created by actors (plural: Tableaux)

           

           

          Materials

          • 10 sets of photos of the four stages in the water cycle (Condensation, Evaporation, Precipitation, Collection). These should each have two holes punched in top corners and a string through them so that students can wear each photo around their neck to allow their hands and body to move freely.  The photos should have Velcro to attach the words below.
          • 10 sets of paper strips with the following words: Condensation, Evaporation, Precipitation, Rain, Snow, Sleet, Hail, Groundwater, Transpiration, Vapor, Clouds. Each strip should have Velcro on the back so that they can be attached to the pictures above.

          Index cards with the conservation methods written on them. One method for each card.

           

          Instructional Design

          Opening/Activating Strategy

          WATER CYCLE MOVEMENTS

          • Have students stand up in place.  Teach and lead them through movement sequences for four stages of the water cycle, coordinated with articulating the words.  Describe what each movement signifies:
            • Evaporation – 

          “E” – arms out like a body of water circled in front of belly (water)

          “vap” – fingers intertwined and rolling like a body of water (liquid)

          “or” – palms flat out like the sun’s rays (sun)

          “a” - fingers wiggles up in front of face (vapors) 

          “tion” – fingers wiggle up above head to disappear (gas)

          • Condensation  – 

          “Con” – wiggly fingers above head (gas)

          “den” – shiver and hands above heads shake (cold)

          “sa” – hands wave fluidly above head (water)

          “tion” – hands grasp together above head (cloud) 

          • Precipitation –

          “Pre” – arms circled above head like a cloud

          “ci” – wiggles fingers down like rain in front of face (rain)

          “pi” – hands blink open, closed like snowflakes (snow)

          “ta” – punch right fist down (sleet)

          “tion” – punch left fist down then left fist (hail) 

          • Collection – 

          “Col” – arms rounded out in front (lake)

          “lec” – hands out like waves (ocean)

          “tion” – hands moving down low (groundwater)

           

           

          Work Session

              • ACTIVATING THE WATER CYCLE
                • Introduce the concept of tableau – a frozen picture created by actors.  Explain that the class will be creating tableaux of the water cycle.
                • Invite four students to the front of the class.  Work with the students, with suggestions from the rest of the class, to create a tableau that portrays the water cycle.  
                  • Remind the class that the water cycle is not linear, so the students should not be standing in a line. 
                  • Remind them that there is no proper beginning or end – it’s a continuous cycle.
                  • Encourage the students to be creative in determining how they can use their bodies to convey the cyclical nature of the processes.  As appropriate to the class rules and culture, allow students to take positions up on chairs or down on the floor.
                • Have students wear the photo that correlates with their part of the cycle.
                • Ask other students to come up and velcro the appropriate vocabulary word to the appropriate part of the cycle where it belongs.
                • Activate the cycle by having students adopt movements – heads, hands, arms, legs, full bodies – that convey what is happening in their part of the water cycle, and add in any appropriate sounds. Remind students of the motions they used at the beginning of class.

                 

                GROUP TABLEAUX

                • Divide the class into groups of four.  Have each group create and then activate their own tableau of the water cycle.  Encourage them to find different ways, from what was modeled for the class, to position themselves and move for their parts of the water cycle, and to interact with others in their group as well.
                • Give each group the photo visuals and ask each person to wear one part of the cycle.  Then have them attach the appropriate vocabulary to their part.
                • Have groups show their cycles to the rest of the class.
                • Reflect on the different interpretations of the different groups, and how each conveyed concepts about the water cycle.

                 

                WATER CONSERVATION

                • Ask the class: “Do you think that we will have water forever?”  Explain: “Water does keep cycling but we can misuse and overuse water and some places are in danger of drought.”
                • Remind students that, “Water is one of our most important resources.”  Ask students: 
                  • “Why is it so important?  What do we use water for?  Is it important to other organisms as well?”  
                  • Be sure to discuss that we use water to produce and prepare food, clean our bodies, wash our dishes and clothes, process our waste, and manufacture and transport goods; we use it for recreation, and to produce hydroelectric power.  
                  • As individuals, we use large amounts of water:  it is estimated that the average American uses around 180 gallons of water a day.
                • Discuss Conservation – the responsible and judicious use of a resource in a way that avoids waste.
                • Introduce and discuss the following list of water conservation practices: 
                1. Avoid watering the lawn or garden between 10 am and 6 pm.
                2. Take shorter showers.
                3. Wash the car over the lawn instead of the driveway.
                4. Turn off the water when brushing teeth. 
                5. Use wastewater from cooking to water plants.
                6. Run the dishwasher and clothes washer only when full.
                7. Keep water in the refrigerator for cold water.
                8. Fix leaky faucets and hoses.
                9. Do not use the toilet as a garbage can.

                Brainstorm other ideas that the students might have.  Put those on additional cards.

                 

                WATER CONSERVATION PANTOMIMES

                • Introduce Pantomime - pretending to hold, use or touch something that you are not really holding, using, or touching; a form of silent theatre.
                • Model and practice a simple pantomime activity (e.g., sweeping the floor, eating a sandwich, swinging a baseball bat, etc.).  
                  • Encourage students to think about the size, weight and shape of the objects in their pantomimes; to be specific with their movements; and to include facial expressions.
                • Have students come up one at a time, or in small groups, and pick a card with a water conservation practice on it.  
                  • Have the individual or small group pantomime the action on their card. They should not speak during the pantomimes.
                • Have other students guess which water conservation practice they are showing.  After guessing, have the class describe the specific aspects of the pantomime that conveyed the water conservation practice.

               

               

              Closing Reflection

              • Review the words and movements for the parts of the water cycle.
              • Review the drama strategies used – Movement, Tableau, and Pantomime.
              • Ask students to reflect on how their thinking about water and the water cycle has changed through the lesson.
              • Ask students to discuss steps they might take in their lives to use water responsibly.

               

               

              Assessments

              Formative

              Teacher will assess understanding of the water cycle and methods of water conservation through the opening activity, class discussion, and observation.

                 

                Summative

                • CHECKLIST: 
                  • Students can accurately identify the key components of the water cycle and match vocabulary words with steps of the water cycle.
                  • Students can work together cooperatively to create tableaux.
                  • Students can use their bodies expressively, and create tableaus with a variety of angles, shapes, levels, and facial expressions.
                  • Students can pantomime water conservation practices silently and with detailed movements and facial expressions

                   

                  • Have students draw a diagram of the water cycle, with each part labeled accurately.
                  • Have students draw a picture, using stick figures in particular poses, to portray their group’s water cycle tableau.
                  • Have students write a paragraph about their own water use and how they plan to incorporate water conservation practices into their daily lives.

                 

                Differentiation

                 

                Acceleration: 

                • Rather than using predetermined movements for the activator, have students collectively come up with the movements for each syllable.
                • When adding movement to the tableaux, have students speak a sentence as their part of the water cycle (e.g., “I am precipitation – I love raining down on the mountains and plains, and on cities and towns and making everyone have indoor recess!”)

                 

                Remediation: 

                • Encourage groups to come up with alternate ideas for the water cycle tableaux, but allow them to replicate what was done in the model tableau.
                • Rather than have students guess each other’s pantomimes, work together as a class to develop a short pantomime sequence for each water conservation practice card.

                 

                 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

                 

                *This integrated lesson provides differentiated ideas and activities for educators that are aligned to a sampling of standards. Standards referenced at the time of publishing may differ based on each state’s adoption of new standards.

                 

                Ideas contributed by:  Barry Stewart Mann and Susie Spear Purcell

                 

                Revised and copyright:  January 2024 @ ArtsNOW

                DRAMATIC WRITING WITH ANSEL ADAMS 2-3

                DRAMATIC WRITING WITH ANSEL ADAMS

                DRAMATIC WRITING WITH ANSEL ADAMS

                Learning Description

                Using Ansel Adams photographs for inspiration, students will explore creative writing, directing, and acting.

                 

                Learning Targets

                GRADE BAND: 2-3
                CONTENT FOCUS: THEATRE & ELA
                LESSON DOWNLOADS:

                Download PDF of this Lesson

                "I Can" Statements

                “I Can…”

                • I can use a photograph as inspiration for creative writing and acting based in a particular setting.
                • I can work with a group to bring to life a scene inspired by a photograph.

                Essential Questions

                • How can visual art be a catalyst for writing and acting? 

                 

                Georgia Standards

                Curriculum Standards

                Grade 2:

                ELACC2W3  Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure. 

                 

                ELACC2SL4  Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.  

                 

                Grade 3:

                ELAGSE3W3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

                 

                ELAGSE3SL4 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details,

                speaking clearly at an understandable pace.

                 

                Arts Standards

                Grade 2: 

                TAES2.2 Developing scripts through improvisation and other theatrical methods.

                  

                TAES2.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments.

                 

                VA2.RE.1 Discuss personal works of art and the artwork of others to enhance visual literacy.

                 

                VA2.CN.1 Investigate and discover the personal relationships of artists to community, culture, and the world through making and studying art.

                 

                Grade 3:

                TAES3.2 Developing scripts through improvisation and other theatrical methods.

                  

                TAES3.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments.

                 

                VA3.RE.1 Use a variety of approaches for art criticism and to critique personal works of

                art and the artwork of others to enhance visual literacy.

                 

                VA3.CN.1 Investigate and discover the personal relationships of artists to community, culture, and the world through making and studying art.

                 

                 

                 

                South Carolina Standards

                Curriculum Standards

                Grade 2:

                ELA.2.C.3.1 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences. When writing: 

                1. establish and describe character(s) and setting; 
                2. sequence events and use temporal words to signal event order (e.g., before, after).

                 

                Grade 3:

                ELA.3.C.3.1 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences. When writing: 

                1. establish a setting and introduce a narrator or characters; 
                2. use temporal words and phrases to sequence a plot structure; 
                3. use descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop characters.

                 

                 

                Arts Standards

                THEATRE

                Anchor Standard 3: I can act in improvised scenes and written scripts.

                 

                VISUAL ARTS

                Anchor Standard 5: I can interpret and evaluate the meaning of an artwork.

                 

                 

                 

                Key Vocabulary

                Content Vocabulary

                • Character - Actor or actress in a specified role.
                • Setting - Environment or place of action. 
                • Plot - List, timetable, or scheme dealing with any of the various arrangements of a story or play.

                 

                Arts Vocabulary

                • Theater - Dramatic literature or its performance; drama.
                • Photography - the process of capturing an image – a photograph – with a camera, either on paper or through a digital medium.

                 

                 

                Materials

                • Index cards and lined paper 
                • Pencils 
                • Copies of Ansel Adams photographs (old calendars are great sources for these)

                 

                Instructional Design

                Opening/Activating Strategy

                Settings

                • Have students stand by their desks, or in open space.
                • Call out a setting (e.g., desert, baseball stadium, birthday party, or under the ocean), and have students enact a person or thing in the environment.  As appropriate, allow students to use voices and make sounds, or instruct them to be in the setting in silence.
                • Use observational language to comment on student choices (e.g., “I see Sara has her arms to be a cactus” or “Dylan is wiggling his body as a snake on the rug.”)
                • Continue to call out a variety of settings.  Alternate between natural settings and human settings.  Allow students to be objects or natural forces in the settings, or people interacting with the settings.

                 

                Work Session

                    Process 

                    • Pass out Ansel Adams photos to the students. Explain that Ansel Adams was a famous American photographer known for his photos of American outdoor landscapes including Yosemite, Big Sur, the Sierras.  
                    • Ask the students to study their photo and examine the visual details:  “What is the first thing your eye is drawn to?  What lines and shapes do you see in the photo?  Did Adams take it from near or far?  How do the light and dark areas work together?  Where is the light source in the image, and which areas are in shadow?  Why do you think Adams chose to take this photograph?”
                    • Have students imagine/visualize details about the setting in the photo, saying:  “Where is this place?  You can make it up. It can be anywhere in the world. What season is it--winter, early spring, etc.?  What time of day is it - early morning, high noon, sunset? What sounds and smells are there? Is the wind blowing? Are birds chirping or other animals making sounds even though you can’t see them? Can you smell pine trees, flowers, or the ocean? If you could place yourself in this picture, where would you be?” 
                    • Tell the students:  “Place the picture in front of you and stand or sit as you imagine you would be in the picture. Now, close your eyes and take a deep breath of the clean air in this place. Listen to the sounds in your environment. Take another deep breath and smell the beautiful aromas.”
                    • One at a time, ask each student to make a sound that they hear in their environment. 
                    • Ask students to think of 3 descriptive phrases about their environment. For example, instead of saying, “the wind,” describe “the loud blowing wind”, “the fierce cry of an eagle,” or the “steep, snowy mountainside.”   Even though the pictures are black and white, encourage students to feel free to use color in their descriptive phrases.  Have the students write down their phrases on a card or piece of paper.  Ask them how they can expand or add to their phrases to make them more descriptive – suggest including texture, color, size, shape, temperature, or other qualities or details.
                    • Have students practice using their descriptive phrases in sentences to describe their settings.  Instruct them to speak as if they are in the setting (e.g., “I am standing with my feet on the edge of the babbling stream.  The water is as cold as ice and shiny like a mirror.  I see silvery fish swimming by with lightning speed.”)  Coach and assist students as needed.
                    • Ask student volunteers to come up and present, imagining themselves in the setting in the photograph.  They should use their voices and bodies to express the feelings and elements in their writing.

                     

                    Bringing the Photograph to Life 

                    • Select a student and guide them to cast three classmates as elements in their setting. The student should announce the element and then choose a classmate to portray it. (E.g., “Someone will be the grass blowing in the wind.”)  Once chosen, the classmate should come to the front and view the photograph.  
                    • Guide the student to direct the elements, telling each classmate where they will be in the live picture, how they will stand or move, and what sounds they will make.  
                    • Once the setting is established, have the student walk/hike/swim into their environment, take their place, use their body and voice to inhabit the setting (e.g., shivering for a cold setting, speaking loud for a distant setting, walking carefully over sharp stones, using a hand to block out the bright sun) and then describe their setting using their descriptive phrases.  
                    • Show the photograph around the room, and solicit comments from the class on how the students brought the setting to life.
                    • Have additional students volunteer to cast, enter, and describe.

                    Possibly:  once the process is established, allow the students to work in groups in different areas of the room, taking turns to use their group-mates to create their settings.

                     

                    Closing Reflection

                    Ask:  “How did we get ideas of what to act from the photos?  How did we use our voices and bodies to become elements of the different settings in the photos?  Also:  How would you describe Ansel Adams’s photos to someone who hasn’t seen any of them?”

                     

                    Assessments

                    Formative

                    • Students created and used three descriptive phrases.. 
                    • Students effectively communicated their ideas.
                    • Students responded appropriately to the Adams images.

                       

                      Summative

                      • Students cast and directed their scenes effectively
                      • Students enacted their roles in the scenes effectively.
                      • Students’ written phrases show awareness of the senses and evocative details.

                       

                      Differentiation

                      Acceleration:

                      • Have students write out their ideas in full paragraph format.
                      • Allow students who are playing elements of the setting to speak from the viewpoints of those elements:  “How does the tree feel?  What is the lake thinking?”

                       

                      Remediation:

                      Use a single photograph with the entire class, and model the process all together.  Cast a small group as elements in the setting, and then model being the person entering and inhabiting the setting.  Repeat the process with a second photo, drafting a student to be the person entering the setting.  You may want to use a photo and have the entire class become elements in the photo, allowing multiple students to be the same thing:  mountains, rocks, trees, clouds.

                       

                       ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

                      • http://www.anseladams.com 
                      • http://www.archives.gov/research/anseladams/ 
                      • “Ansel Adams Original Photograph - Black & White Photography.” The Ansel Adams Gallery, shop.anseladams.com/collections/original-photographs-by-ansel-adams. Accessed 28 June 2023. 

                      *This integrated lesson provides differentiated ideas and activities for educators that are aligned to a sampling of standards. Standards referenced at the time of publishing may differ based on each state’s adoption of new standards.

                      Ideas contributed and updated by: Susie Spear Purcell and Barry Stewart Mann

                      Revised and copyright:  June 2023 @ ArtsNOW

                      APOSTROPHE TABLEAU 2-3

                      APOSTROPHE TABLEAU

                      APOSTROPHE TABLEAU

                      Learning Description

                      Apostrophes are so much fun – let’s learn about the apostrophe’s uses!  Students will collaborate in word tableaux, creating sentences of their own, to differentiate between the plural and possessive uses of apostrophes.

                       

                      Learning Targets

                      GRADE BAND: 2-3
                      CONTENT FOCUS: THEATRE & ELA
                      LESSON DOWNLOADS:

                      Download PDF of this Lesson

                      "I Can" Statements

                      “I Can…”

                      • I can tell the difference between plural and possessive nouns and know when to use an apostrophe.

                      Essential Questions

                      • How and when do we use apostrophes in plural and possessive nouns?

                       

                      Georgia Standards

                      Curriculum Standards

                      Grade 2:  

                      ELAGSE2L2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.     c. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.

                       

                      Grade 3:  

                      ELAGSE3L2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.   d. Form and use possessives.

                       

                       

                       

                      Arts Standards

                      Grades 2 & 3: 

                      TA.PR.1 Act by communicating and sustaining roles in formal and informal environments.

                       

                       

                      South Carolina Standards

                      Curriculum Standards

                      Grade 2:  

                      ELA.L.5.2 Use apostrophes to form contractions and singular possessive nouns. 

                       

                      Grade 3:  

                      ELA.L. 5.2 Use apostrophes to form contractions and singular and plural possessives.

                       

                      Arts Standards

                      Anchor Standard 1: I can create scenes and write scripts using story elements and structure. 

                      Anchor Standard 3: I can act in improvised scenes and written scripts.

                       

                       

                      Key Vocabulary

                      Content Vocabulary

                      • Punctuation – Marks used in writing to separate sentences or to clarify meaning.

                      • Apostrophe – A punctuation mark used to indicate either possession or the omission of letters or numbers (as in contractions).

                      • Contraction – A combination of words in which omitted letters are replaced by an apostrophe.

                      • Possessive – Indicating possession or ownership.

                      • Plural – Indicating more than one item.

                      • Singular – Indicating only one item.

                       

                      Arts Vocabulary

                      • Tableau – A frozen picture created by actors.

                      • Line – Words or sentences spoken by an actor.

                      • Vocal expression – Conveyance of meaning using the elements of voice.

                       

                       

                      Materials

                      • Apostrophes-on-a-stick (made with the attached enlarged apostrophe. Other options include an apostrophe printed or by hand, on cardstock. Simply glue onto the handle (a stick, ruler, straw, pencil, or other similar item).  Have enough of these for each group of 4-5 students.

                       

                      Instructional Design

                      Opening/Activating Strategy

                      • Teach and sing (to the tune of “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star”):

                             I see an s at the end of a noun.

                             Apostrophe in or leave it out?

                             If it has something to possess

                             Then it should be ‘s.

                             But if it’s a plural – more than one,

                             No apostrophe – that’s how it’s done!

                      Collectively develop gestures to go along with the song (e.g., draw an S in the air, arms embracing to convey “possess”, thumbs up for “that’s how it’s done,” etc.).

                       

                      Work Session

                        • Introduce/review what an apostrophe is, and its various uses: possessives, contractions, omitted letters.  Focus on possessives.  Discuss how a possessive is formed in general by putting ‘s at the end of a word; a plural is formed by putting an s at the end of the word; and these two formations are often confused with one another, so people put in an apostrophe into a plural where it doesn’t belong, and people often leave it out of a possessive where it does belong. 

                                    Optional:  Do an online image search for ‘misused apostrophes’ or “signs with incorrect       

                                    plurals’ for real world examples showing this common confusion.

                         

                        Drama Instruction

                        • Introduce the Drama strategy of Tableau – a frozen picture created by actors.  Model tableau with a small group – create a tableau of a playground.  Encourage different shapes within the tableau, allow actors to be both living and non-living elements in the tableau, and be clear that all must be in the same picture.
                        • Introduce the idea of making a tableau of a word – choose a simple 3- or 4- letter word.  Draft students to use their bodies to create a tableau of the word, e.g., L-I-O-N (one student shapes herself into an “L”, one into an “I”, etc.).  
                        • Remind them that they can use their full bodies, or certain parts, and that there are many ways to create each letter. Possibly, have all students stand to make the shapes of the letters, to give the actors a variety of ideas. 

                         

                        • Then add another actor to be an “S” at the end – L-I-O-N-S.  Solicit a suggestion of a sentence with the word as a plural, e.g., “The lions are all asleep.”  Have the group say the sentence together, inserting the spelling (spoken individually by each letter) after the word, e.g., “The lions - L-I-O-N-S - are all asleep.”  This is their line of text.  
                        • Discuss elements of vocal expression:  tone of voice, volume, articulation. Have students, or the entire class, explore how to say the line with vocal expression.
                        • Next, develop a sentence with the word as a possessive, e.g., “The lion’s mane is very shaggy.”  Have one of the actors – either the actor who is the last letter of the word or the “S” actor – hold up the stick apostrophe in the correct location in the word tableau.  Have the group say the new sentence together, inserting the spelling again, spoken individually by the actors, after the word, e.g., “The lion’s – L-I-O-N-apostrophe-S – mane is very shaggy.”  Have students say this line also with appropriate expression.
                        • If deemed necessary, repeat the modeling process with another example, perhaps with another type of noun, e.g.,  “I have a hundred rocks – R-O-C-K-S – in my collection,” and “Look at this rock’s – R-O-C-K-apostrophe-S – weird shape,” or “Great minds – M-I-N-D-S – think alike,” and “I see it in my mind’s – M-I-N-D-apostrophe-S - eye.”
                        • Brainstorm a variety of 3- or 4-letter nouns – write them on the board or on a screen.  They can be animals, objects, even abstract concepts, e.g., dog, book, sun, love, tree, plum, cup, wind.  Avoid nouns ending in “S” (e.g., boss, mess) or with irregular or more complicated plurals (e.g., wolf, man, box, fish).  Use nouns that pluralize with -s.
                        • Divide the class into working groups of four or five students.  Instruct them to replicate the modeled process with one of the brainstormed words (or an appropriate noun of their own choosing):  
                          • Create a word tableau with an s at the end, using their bodies creatively to make the shapes of the letters.
                          • Create a sentence with the word as a plural. 
                          • Speak the sentence with the spelled-out word, using their voices expressively.
                          • Create a sentence with the word as a possessive
                          • Insert the apostrophe in the appropriate place. 
                          • Speak the sentence with the spelled out word, including the apostrophe.
                        • Have each group present their two tableaux to the class.  After each, examine the choices the group made and determine if they included or left out the apostrophe correctly.

                         

                        Closing Reflection

                        • Reflect on the process of creating the groups’ tableaux. “How did you work together to create it, and then to say your lines?  How did you use your bodies to represent the letters?  What are the two forms that we focused on?  What is the difference between them, and which one generally uses an apostrophe?”
                        • Return to the song and sing it again, using the gestures developed by the class at the beginning of the lesson.

                         

                        Assessments

                        Formative

                        • Assess understanding of the difference between the possessive and the plural, based on prior knowledge and/or after learning and singing the song.
                        • Observe how students use their bodies to create the letters, and how they use their voices to express their lines.
                        • Observe and listen in on group processes for creating their tableaux and lines, looking for respectful collaboration, sharing of ideas, and inclusion of all group members.

                           

                          Summative

                          Have students choose three words from the word bank on the board and write two sentences for each, one with the word as a plural, and the other with the word as a possessive. Stipulate that they cannot use the word that their group used, and they cannot repeat sentences that any of the groups used.

                           

                           

                           

                           

                          Differentiation

                          Acceleration: 

                          • Challenge the students to make their sentences connect in meaning and context.  (e.g., “All of the pigs – P-I-G-S - were snorting.  We heard one pig’s – P-I-G-apostrophe-S – squeals above the chorus of snorts.”
                          • Add in plural possessives, to clarify the use of apostrophes there, so that the modeling offers three lines, and each group must come up with three lines (e.g., “There were so many toys – T-O-Y-S – in the playroom.  One toy’s – T-O-Y-apostrophe-S – speaker was playing some very irritating music.  The toys’ – T-O-Y-S-apostrophe many colors were like a kaleidoscope.”
                          • Add in contractions for “is” to further differentiate.  E.g., “That pig’s about to run away” or “the noisy toy’s getting on my last nerve.”
                          • Focus on pronoun exceptions – possessives without apostrophes (its, not it’s; whose, not who’s; hers, not her’s; ours, not our’s; yours, not your’s; theirs, not their’s).
                          • Practice with words that end with s – “Here come the buses/the bus’s wheel is flat”; the Davises are coming to visit/Mr. Davis’s mother is with them.”

                          Remediation: 

                          • Cycle all students through groups in front of the class, rather than having groups work independently.
                          • Have the whole class decide on and practice a shape for each letter.
                          • Do fewer examples and use longer words so more students can be in each (if guided by the teacher in front of the class).
                          • Use words for items visible in the classroom, and make the sentences correspond to visible phenomena, (e.g., “There are lamps L-A-M-P-S – in our classroom,” and “The tall lamp’s – L-A-M-P-apostrophe-S shade is white.”)

                          *This integrated lesson provides differentiated ideas and activities for educators that are aligned to a sampling of standards. Standards referenced at the time of publishing may differ based on each state’s adoption of new standards.

                           Ideas contributed by:  Barry Stewart Mann

                           Revised and copyright:  August 2022 @ ArtsNOW

                          Maya’s Popping Words

                          Maya's Popping Words

                          MAYA'S POPPING WORDS

                          Learning Description

                          Using Maya Angelou’s poem, “I Love the Look of Words,” students will create gestural and full-body enactments of the poem and explore new and high-powered words.

                           

                          Learning Targets

                          GRADE BAND: 4-5
                          CONTENT FOCUS: THEATRE & ELA
                          LESSON DOWNLOADS:

                          Download PDF of this Lesson

                          "I Can" Statements

                          “I Can…”

                          • I can think about words metaphorically and identify new and unfamiliar words.

                          Essential Questions

                          • How and why do we expand our vocabulary with new words?

                          Georgia Standards

                          Curriculum Standards

                          Grade 4:

                          ELAGSE4RL4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).

                          Grade 5:

                          ELAGSE5RL4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used ina text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.

                          Arts Standards

                          Grade 4:

                          TA4.PR.1 Act by communicating and sustaining roles in formal and informal environments.

                          Grade 5:

                          TA5.PR.1 Act by communicating and sustaining roles in formal and informal environments.

                           

                          South Carolina Standards

                          Curriculum Standards

                          Grade 4:

                          ELA.4.AOR.8.1 Determine an author’s use of words and phrases in grade-level literary, informational, and multimedia texts: a. distinguish between literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases (e.g., take steps); b. explain the meaning of commonly occurring similes, metaphors, and idioms.

                          Grade 5:

                          ELA.5.AOR.8.1 Determine an author’s use of figurative and technical language in literary, informational, and multimedia texts: a. recognize and explain the meaning of figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.

                          Arts Standards

                          Anchor Standard 3:  I can act in improvised scenes and written scripts.

                           

                          Key Vocabulary

                          Content Vocabulary

                          Metaphor - An implied comparison of unlike objects.

                          Simile - A comparison of unlike objects that uses ‘like’ or ‘as.’

                          Literal - Having a meaning that is exactly what the word or words say; the original meaning.

                          Figurative - Having a meaning that is not exactly what the word or words say, but that applies their original meaning in a different way.

                          Poem - A piece of writing in which the words are chosen for their beauty and sound and are carefully arranged, often in short lines that rhyme.

                          Arts Vocabulary

                          Voice - An actor’s tool, which we shape and change to portray the way a character speaks or sounds.

                          Body – An actor’s tool, which we shape and change to portray the way a character looks, walks, or moves.

                          Gesture - A specific physical movement, especially of the hands or arms, intended to convey meaning.

                          Act - To pretend to be or do something imaginary; bringing an idea or character to life.

                          Facial Expressions - Conveying thoughts and feelings through the face and eyes.

                           

                          Materials

                           

                          Instructional Design

                          Opening/Activating Strategy

                          Warm Up
                          Have students stand up and alternate between intervals of random sound and movement and intervals of stillness and silence:  5, 10, 15, 20 seconds (i.e., 5 seconds of random sound and movement, then 5 seconds of absolute stillness and silence, etc.).  Have students sit down to reflect on the feelings evoked by each.  “How does it feel to speak and move?  How does it feel to be silent for an extended period?  When in your life do you have to maintain silence?  Why?”  (Reflection can be with a partner, in a small group, or in the full group.)

                           

                          Work Session

                          Connect the stillness and silence of the Warm-Up to the story of Maya Angelou, told selectively from information gleaned from the Poetry Foundation page (according to teacher comfort).  Suggested script:

                          “Maya Angelou was a famous poet.  She was an African-American woman born in 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri.  She would grow up to become the Poet Laureate, or the official poet, of the United States, and to earn many awards and honors.  She is also the first African-American woman to be pictured on a quarter.  But when she was 8 years old she stopped talking.  She had been mistreated by someone in her family, and she spoke up.  But she felt that speaking up had caused more trouble, including violence, and so she stopped speaking.  She remained mute for five years.  During that time, she read a lot, and developed a passion for reading and a love of words.  Many people tried to get her to speak, but none were successful until a teacher named Mrs. Flowers, when Maya was 12 ½, convinced her of the importance of the spoken word, and Maya began to speak again.  Maya Angelou died in 2014 at the age of 86.”

                          (Note:  Teacher should become familiar with the story of Angelou’s childhood.  There are some details that are not appropriate for sharing in the classroom; teacher should be prepared to answer any questions that may arise.)

                          • Introduce, or review, the difference between literal and figurative language, and the definitions of metaphor and simile.
                          • Introduce the poem, “I Love the Look of Words,” by Maya Angelou.  Read it at least twice:  teacher reads it through once, then the class reads it through all together.
                          • Discuss the dominant metaphor in the poem.  What two unlike things is Angelou comparing to each other?  How does this metaphor convey her feelings about her subject?  How do you respond to this metaphor?  What other similes and metaphors are found in the poem?  
                          • First enactment:  Enact the poem with gestures.  
                            • Drama instruction:  Define and discuss gestures as physical movements used to convey meaning.  
                          • Define and discuss facial expression as the way we convey thoughts and feelings with our faces.  
                          • Define and discuss enactment as the process of bringing something to life through acting.
                          • First model with the opening three lines, using gesture and facial expression to represent the “popcorn,” “popping from the floor,” the “hot black skillet,” and “into my mouth.”  Then brainstorm gestures, facial expressions, and actions for the remainder of the poem.  Have students stand and enact the gestures as the teacher does a full reading of the poem.
                          • Second enactment: Enact the poem with full body movement.  
                            • Brainstorm ways to use the body to become both the leaping popcorn and the leaping words.  
                            • Explore with the students ways to express phrases like “sliding into my brain,” “the words stay stuck,” “the weight of ideas,” and “the tracks of new thinking.”  
                            • Have students stand and enact the full-body interpretation of the poem as the teacher does a full reading.
                          • Third enactment: Enact the poem with “popping words.”  
                            • Brainstorm new and interesting words with the students:  these can be vocabulary words, words they have encountered through their own reading, interests or conversations, or unfamiliar words they have heard that they are curious about.  
                          • Final read-through:  Either the teacher reads, or the teacher assigns groups to read sections.  As the poem is being read, those not reading become words popping up randomly (e.g., “Armistice!”  “Melancholy!”  “Obtuse!” “Thermodynamic!” etc.), leaping up and speaking the words with energy and clarity.  

                          Drama instruction:  thinking about Angelou’s love of words, have students explore speaking their words with different feelings, altered voices, dialects, pitches, varying volume and pace, etc.

                          • Reflect on the different processes.  “How did we bring the poem to life?  Which actions – gestures, facial expressions, full-body movements, popping words - did you feel best represented Maya Angelou’s purpose in writing the poem? How do you relate to this poem now?”
                          • Distribute the Popcorn Box template.  Have students cut out the pieces and build the popcorn box.  Have students use dictionaries or other reference materials (in hand or online) to find interesting, unfamiliar words – words that were not used in the enactment - to write on the popcorn pieces; then have them crumble the pieces and put them in the popcorn box.  Use the boxes in pairs, small groups, or full class to explore new words.

                           

                          Closing Reflection

                          Ask students, “How did we use our voices and bodies to bring the poem to life?”  “How did we creatively interpret the similes and metaphors in the poem?”  “How did we convey the theme of the poem?”  “How do you think Maya Angelou might have felt observing our lesson today?”

                           

                          Assessments

                          Formative

                          • Note students’ responses in discussion of silence and movement.
                          • Note students’ understanding of metaphors and similes through their citing of examples from the poem.
                          • Observe students’ use of body, voice, and facial expression in the enacted readings of the poem.

                           

                          Summative

                          Assessment instrument – questionnaire:

                          Questions

                          1. What is a metaphor?
                          2. What is a simile?
                          3. What is the central metaphor of “I Love the Look of Words”?
                          4. Describe one way in which you enacted a phrase or section of the poem.
                          5. List three of the words you wrote on your popcorn.
                          6. Tell one interesting fact you learned about Maya Angelou.

                           

                          Answers

                          1. An implied comparison of two unlike objects.
                          2. A comparison of unlike objects using ‘like’ or ‘as’.
                          3. Words = popcorn
                          4. Possibly, “I used my hands to be the popping popcorn,” “I leapt in the air and shouted new words,” “I chomped with my teeth,” “I pretended to smell the butter on my fingers,” “I ran like I was on a track of new thinking,” etc.
                          5. (student choice)
                          6. Possibly:  She was the chief poet of the U.S., she stopped speaking as a child, a teacher got her to speak again, she won many awards, her picture is on a quarter, etc.

                           

                          Differentiation

                          Acceleration

                          • Assign groups to independently develop gestural or full-body enactments of sections of the poem, to present to the class.
                          • Instruct students to follow up with a writing exercise, creating a short piece that includes all of the new words they wrote on their pieces of popcorn.  Have them read their written pieces with expression.

                          Remediation

                          • Plan out the gestural and full-body enactments ahead of time, to be less dependent on brainstorming and student input.
                          • Do leaping and popping more simply, in a seated position, or with a specific gesture of the arms alone, rather than with full body.
                          • Brainstorm as a class a list of unfamiliar, interesting words, and write them on a board, for the students to use in the third enactment of popping words.

                          Additional Resources

                          *This integrated lesson provides differentiated ideas and activities for educators that are aligned to a sampling of standards. Standards referenced at the time of publishing may differ based on each state’s adoption of new standards.

                          Ideas contributed by: Barry Stewart Mann

                          Revised and copyright: February 2023 @ ArtsNOW