Literary Characters Come to Life K-1

LITERARY CHARACTERS COME TO LIFE

LITERARY CHARACTERS COME TO LIFE

Learning Description

Students will use their bodies, voices, facial expressions, and emotions to bring literary characters to life. They will take turns in the “Hot Seat” to speak from their character’s point of view, answering questions from their classmates.  Drawing- or Writing-in-Role will help students embody the character and the story as they delve into their written responses.

 

Learning Targets

GRADE BAND: K-1
CONTENT FOCUS: THEATRE & ELA
LESSON DOWNLOADS:

Download PDF of this Lesson

"I Can" Statements

“I Can…”

  • I can think and speak from someone else’s point of view.
  • I can use my whole self to create characters from stories.

Essential Questions

  • How does acting help me to understand and communicate with others? 
  • How can becoming a character help me learn more about a story?

 

Georgia Standards

Curriculum Standards

Kindergarten:

ELAGSEKRL3 With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

Grade 1:

ELAGSE1RL3: Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

 

Arts Standards

Kindergarten:

TAK.PR.1 Act by communicating and sustaining roles in formal and informal environments.a. Use voice to communicate emotions.b. Use body to communicate emotions.c. Cooperate in theatre experiences.d. Assume roles in a variety of dramatic forms (e.g. narrated story, pantomime, puppetry,dramatic play).

 

Grade 1:

TAK.PR.1 Act by communicating and sustaining roles in formal and informal environments.

  1. Use voice to communicate emotions.
  2. Use body to communicate emotions.
  3. Cooperate in theatre experiences.
  4. Assume roles in a variety of dramatic forms (e.g. narrated story, pantomime, puppetry, dramatic play).

 

 

 

South Carolina Standards

Curriculum Standards

Kindergarten:

READING-LITERARY TEXT - Meaning and Context

Standard 8: Analyze characters, settings, events, and ideas as they develop and interact within a particular context.

8.1 With guidance and support, read or listen closely to: a. describe characters and their actions; b. compare characters’ experiences to those of the reader; c. describe setting; d. identify the problem and solution; and e. identify the cause of an event.

 

Grade 1

READING-LITERARY TEXT - Meaning and Context

Standard 8: Analyze characters, settings, events, and ideas as they develop and interact within a particular context.

8.1 Read or listen closely to: a. describe characters’ actions and feelings; b. compare and contrast characters’ experiences to those of the reader; c. describe setting; d. identify the plot including problem and solution; and e. describe cause and effect relationships.

 

Arts Standards

Anchor Standard 3: I can act in improvised scenes and written scripts. 

 

 

 

Key Vocabulary

Content Vocabulary

  • Character – A person, or an animal or object that has human qualities, in a story.

Arts Vocabulary

  • Body – An actor’s tool, which we shape and change to portray the way a character looks, walks, or moves
  • Facial Expressions – The ways that the eyes, mouth, cheeks, forehead and other parts of the face convey feelings
  • Voice - An actor’s tool, which we shape and change to portray the way a character speaks or sounds
  • Pitch – How high or low a voice is
  • Pace – How fast or slow someone’s speech is
  • Volume – How loud or quiet a voice is

Emotions – Feelings

 

Materials

  • A preselected book, story, poem, or literary excerpt (preferably with a variety of characters)
  • Paper & pencils
  • Box (any shape, size or color.)

     

     

    Instructional Design

    Opening/Activating Strategy

    THIS IS NOT A BOX 

    • Hold up a small box and offer an imagination challenge for the group. 
      • The object of the game is to transform the box into something it is not. 
      • For example, “This is not a box. This is a butterfly.” (making the box open and close to fly like a butterfly.) 
    • Ask students to describe what you did.
      • Reference the performance skills that actors use to transform an object including the voice, body, face, mind, descriptive language, etc
    • Explain that each person in the circle will take a turn. 
      • They will say: “This is not a box. It is a …”
      • They will use their gestures, bodies, facial expressions, and voices to transform the object into something new. 
    • Pass the box around the circle so that each participant can transform it. If students repeat the same actions as their peers, encourage them to act out new ideas.  Provide ideas as needed (be prepared with suggestions, in case students can’t think of new ideas.  For example, depending on the size of the box: a drum, a birthday present, a box of cereal, a frisbee, a box of popcorn at a movie, an old video camera, a hat, a hamster box, a shoe, etc.).
    • The pace of the game is dependent on the needs of the group, but the teacher should keep the goals of spontaneity and creativity in mind.

       

      Work Session

      READ ALOUD 

      • Discuss how the activity activated the entire class’s imagination: the actor conveyed an idea through their acting, and the rest of the class had to visualize or imagine that idea as they observed.  Explain that this lesson will use a similar process to explore characters in literature.
      • Read the selected text aloud.  Model expressive reading by using different voices for the characters, conveying emotion through facial expressions, and employing simple gestures.  Ask students to identify and visualize the characters as they listen.  As appropriate, bring students into the reading as much as possible, providing sound effects, repeating phrases or dialogue, and doing simple movements indicated in the text. 

       

      CHARACTER GROUNDING

      • Ask students to imagine that they are a character from the story. 
      • Model creating one of the characters.  Select a character, then use voice, body, facial expressions, and gesture to become the character, introducing him- or herself to the class.
      • Group Character Creation: Choose a character for the entire class to enact.  It can be the same one that the teacher enacted or a different one.  Guide the students through a step-by-step process to depict the character from the story.
        • Teacher says, “How do we stand, move, or walk as ______ (the character)?”. Use observational language to promote student choices (“I see Olivia is standing tall; Manuel has his shoulders pulled back,” etc.)  
        • Encourage a variety of possibilities – individual actors can interpret the character differently. 
        • Have students stay in their spots or allow them to move, as appropriate for the class and the space.
      • Teacher says, “Let’s add our faces.  How would _______’s face look?  How would he/she use his/her face to express his/her feelings?  Use your eyes, eyebrows, mouth, cheeks; use the angle of your head.”  Listen to students’ ideas, and validate various choices.
      • Teacher says, “How would _______’s voice sound?  Would it be high or low?  Loud or soft? Would he/she talk fast or slow?”  Listen to students’ ideas, and validate various choices.
      • Teacher says, “Characters feel emotions, and actors use their bodies, facial expressions, and voices to convey characters’ emotions.”  
        • Discuss different emotions (happy, sad, angry, frightened, nervous, excited, frustrated, brave, etc.).  
        • Discuss the feelings that the selected character experienced at different points of the story.  
        • Guide students to convey those emotions, modeling as needed.  
        • Solicit a line of dialogue for each, whether drawn directly or inferred from the story.  
        • Using body, facial expressions and voice, convey the emotion while speaking the line, either standing in place or taking a few steps, as appropriate.

       

      HOT SEAT

        • Explain that the class will use an activity called Hot Seat, in which an individual actor will play the character, and the class will have the opportunity to ask the character questions.
      • Generate questions: Give a sample question or two for the character, such as: 
      • How did they feel at different points in the story
      • Why did they do what they did in the story 
      • What did they learn from what happened
      • How they feel about other characters
      • What did they plan to do in the future based on the events of the story
      • Remind students that ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions, and other questions that require some sort of description or explanation, are preferable to ‘who’, ‘when’, and ‘where’ questions, and other questions that only require a brief answer, or a simple ‘yes’ or ‘no’. 
        • For example, “Why were you so angry?” or “How did you feel when . . .?” or “What do you like about . . .?” are stronger than “Were you excited when . . .?” or “How old are you?” or “Who is your best friend?”).
      • Model Hot Seat:  
        • Sit in a chair in front of the class and assume the character from the story in character (with body, facial expressions, and voice).  Speak in first person as the character (“Hello, everyone, I’m __________.  Who has a question for me?”).
        • Select students to ask questions from the group brainstorm, reminding or prompting as needed.  Model strong character choices, making sure to add details and emotional context while answering questions from the Hot Seat.
      • Student Hot Seat Warm Up:
        • Assign students to work in pairs.
        • Have them decide who will go first.  Instruct that student to go into the role as the character (with body, facial expressions, and voice) and introduce themselves to their partners in character. 
        • Instruct the partners to ask questions of the character.
        • Have partners switch and repeat the process.
      • Students in Hot Seat:
        • Draft one student to walk like their character to the front of the room and sit in a chair facing the audience.
        • Start the Hot Seat questioning by asking the student/character to introduce himself/herself (if needed, remind the actor to maintain their character choices). 
        • Ask a question of the character.
        • Give other students the chance to ask questions.

      Teacher note: Be prepared, if necessary, to interject or prompt students with probing questions that get to the heart of the character and the story.

       

        • Optional variations:
        • The above process can be conducted using the same character throughout, or students can be given the option to become other characters in the story.  If necessary, take time to develop questions for each different character.
        • After establishing the practice of Hot Seat, expand it into a panel, having several students sit in a row of chairs, assuming different characters from the story.

        WRITING-IN-ROLE

        • After participating in Hot Seat, ask all students to return to their seats and tell them that they will draw the character and, if appropriate, write something the character might think or say in a thought or speech bubble.  Invite students to have the character say something that a) they said in the story, b) they said in the Hot Seat activity, or c) the student could imagine the character might say or think.

         

        Closing Reflection

        Ask students to respond to one or more of the following reflection questions:

        • How did it feel to become the character?
        • What did you learn about the character from our activity?
        • How did we use our bodies, voices, and facial expressions to play the character(s) and convey their feelings?

        Assessments

        Formative

        Teacher will assess student understanding by:

        • Noting student observations and inferences about the characters.
        • Listening as pairs of students ask and answer questions.
        • Observing as students portray the character in pairs and in the Hot Seat.

         

         

         

        Summative

        CHECKLIST

        • Were students able to step into their role and talk, move, walk, and write from their character’s point of view? 
        • Were the students able to recall and retell a key point of the story from the character’s point of view?

         

         

         

        Differentiation

        Accelerated: 

        • Students in the audience take on another character from the book and speak from that character’s point of view while asking questions to the character in the Hot Seat. 
        • Students can also pick different characters and talk to each other from their seats. They can then improvise and write a scene with the two characters. 

        Remedial: Teacher in the Role - The teacher becomes the character and then asks a student to copy what they are doing, so that the teacher and student are playing the same character at the same time. The teacher then invites other students to ask questions, with prompting as needed.  Teacher and student answer questions together. Then, allow students, who are willing, to take turns in the Hot Seat as the same character.

         

        *This integrated lesson provides differentiated ideas and activities for educators that are aligned to a sampling of standards. Standards referenced at the time of publishing may differ based on each state’s adoption of new standards.

        Ideas contributed by:  Barry Stewart Mann

        Revised and copyright:  April 2023 @ ArtsNOW

         

        PATTERNS IN MOTION 2-3

        PATTERNS IN MOTION

        PATTERNS IN MOTION

        Learning Description

        Understand the structure of pattern and sequence through the elements of dance and choreography using movements that represent geometric shapes!

         

        Learning Targets

        GRADE BAND: 2-3
        CONTENT FOCUS: DANCE & ELA
        LESSON DOWNLOADS:

        Download PDF of this Lesson

        "I Can" Statements

        “I Can…”

        • I can recognize the difference between a pattern and a sequence in shapes, rhyming words, and movements.
        • I can use dance and rhyming to decode single-syllable words.
        • I can create choreography to represent a pattern or sequence.

        Essential Questions

        • What are different ways we can represent sequence and patterns through movement?
        • How can we use dance and rhyming to decode single-syllable words?
        • How can I create choreography to represent a pattern or sequence?

         

        Georgia Standards

        Curriculum Standards

        Grade 2: 

        ELAGSE2RL4 Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.

         

        ELAGSE2RF3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

         

        ELAGSE2SL1 Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

         

        Grade 3: 

        ELAGSE3RF3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words

         

        ELAGSE3SL1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

         

        Arts Standards

        Grade 2:

        ESD2.CR.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the choreographic process.

        ESD2.CR.2 Demonstrate an understanding of dance as a form of communication.

        ESD2.PR.1 Identify and demonstrate movement elements, skills, and terminology in dance.

        ESD2.RE.1 Demonstrate critical and creative thinking in dance.

        ESD2.CN.3 Identify connections between dance and other areas of knowledge.

         

        Grade 3:

        ESD3.CR.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the choreographic process.

        ESD3.CR.2 Demonstrate an understanding of dance as a form of communication.

        ESD3.PR.1 Identify and demonstrate movement elements, skills, technique, and terminology in dance

        ESD3.RE.1 Demonstrate critical and creative thinking in dance.

        ESD3.CN.3 Identify connections between dance and other areas of knowledge.

         

         

         

        South Carolina Standards

        Curriculum Standards

        Grade 2:

        READING - Literary Text (RL) 

        Standard 2: Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds. 

        Standard 3: Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

         

        COMMUNICATION (C)  

        Standard 1: Interact with others to explore ideas and concepts, communicate meaning, and develop logical interpretations through collaborative conversations; build upon the ideas of others to clearly express one’s own views while respecting diverse perspectives.

         

        Grade 3:READING - Literary Text (RL) 

        Standard 2: Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds. 

        Standard 3: Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. 

         

        COMMUNICATION (C)  

        Standard 1: Interact with others to explore ideas and concepts, communicate meaning, and develop logical interpretations through collaborative conversations; build upon the ideas of others to clearly express one’s own views while respecting diverse perspectives.

         

         

        Arts Standards

        Grades 2-3:

        Anchor Standard 1: I can use movement exploration to discover and create artistic ideas and works.

        Anchor Standard 2: I can choreograph a dance.

        Anchor Standard 3: I can perform movements using the dance elements.

        Anchor Standard 5: I can describe, analyze, and evaluate a dance.

        Anchor Standard 7: I can relate dance to other arts disciplines, content areas, and careers.

         

         

         

         

        Key Vocabulary

        Content Vocabulary

          • Pattern - A set of elements repeated in a predictable manner
          • Sequence - A series of elements arranged with intention and does not always follow a pattern
          • Rhyming scheme - The pattern of rhymes at the end of each line
          • Rhyme - The similarity in sound between words or the ending sounds of words

          Arts Vocabulary

          • Choreography - The art of composing dances and planning and arranging the movements, steps, and patterns of dancers
          • Choreographer - A person who creates dances
          • Body shapes - Forms that the entire body or body parts take when making movement

           

           

          Materials

            • Music source and speakers
            • Cards printed with shapes
            • Cards printed with groups of shapes in patterns or sequences
            • Cards printed with groups of one-syllable words in patterns or sequences
            • Cards printed with poems

             

             

            Instructional Design

            Opening/Activating Strategy

            • Play music with a strong beat. As a class group, lead students in a warm up that establishes the beat of the music such as marching or clapping.
            • Next, lead them in making movements that have obvious geometric qualities using vocabulary from The Elements of Dance to describe body shapes. Examples include straight lines using arms and legs, rounded shapes using arms, etc.

             

            Work Session

            Movement discovery

            • Show students cards with geometric shapes printed on them and ask them to move to the beat to represent the shape of the card until you show a different card. Repeat this several times until students have discovered/created several different movements.

            Establish pattern versus sequence:

            • Continue the discovery activity holding the cards up for shorter periods of time and in patterns, ABAB at first and then more complicated. Open a handle question: How am I arranging the cards? How am I arranging your dance steps?
            • Ask students to explain the arrangement of the dance steps. They should arrive at the concept of patterns.
            • Repeat two previous steps using a sequence instead of a pattern.

            Choreographic process

            • Divide students into small groups. Give each group a card printed with a pattern or a sequence represented in shapes. Without sharing with other groups, students identify whether their card shows a pattern or sequence.
            • Students create dances based on the order of shapes on their cards and the dance movements that they discovered during previous segments of the lesson. Encourage students to use movements from the warm-up or create movements using the movements from warm-up as inspiration.
            • Allow students time to practice their dance.

            Performance

            • Peers identify whether the performing group is showing a sequence or pattern. When a pattern is performed, peers describe the pattern in terms of shapes represented by the dance movements.

            Poetry connection

            • Give each group a card with rhyming words that are arranged in a pattern or sequence, such as CAT, FROG, BAT, LOG (ABAB pattern) or CAT, FROG, LOG, BAT (ABBA sequence). Students determine the pattern or sequence.
            • Give each group a short poem and ask students to identify the rhyming scheme, which will be a sequence or a pattern.  

            Final dance 

            • Students create dances based on patterns or sequences that they identified in the previous step. They use the dance movements that they discovered during previous segments of the lesson. 
            • Allow groups to present poems and dances.

             

            Closing Reflection

            • Groups explain why they chose certain movements to express certain shapes. 
            • Students explain how looking for patterns versus sequences in shapes and dances is like looking for patterns versus sequences in poetry rhyming schemes.

            Assessments

            Formative

            Teachers will assess understanding through: 

            • Student engagement in collaborative discussion about movement choices, math concepts, and ELA concepts.
            • Students’ use of dance vocabulary to describe body shapes during discussion.
            • Students’ progress toward a finished choreography during collaborative group work period.

             

             

            Summative

            CHECKLIST

            • Students can present choreography that accurately portrays their assigned pattern or sequence. 
            • Students can recognize the difference between a pattern and a sequence in shapes, rhyming words, and movements.
            • Students can explain why they chose certain movements to express certain shapes.
            • Students’ choreography demonstrates that they can use dance and rhyming to decode single-syllable words.
            • Peers/audience can accurately identify the pattern or sequence expressed in peer choreography.

             

            Differentiation

            Acceleration:

            • Ask students to rearrange the final words of the poem to turn the sequence into a pattern (select a poem that is intrinsically flexible for this task).
            • Create a dance in small groups to express the rhyming scheme.
            • Use two-syllable words instead of single-syllable words in poetry connection.

             

            Remediation:

            • Use one poem to work with as a class rather than multiple poems.

             

             ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

            • Classroom Tips: Set up chairs and tables in a circular format to maximize students’  engagement and ability to see their peers during the activity and  performance. Also establish parameters for acceptable movement choices and discuss audience  behavior/etiquette with students.
            • The Elements of Dance

            *This integrated lesson provides differentiated ideas and activities for educators that are aligned to a sampling of standards. Standards referenced at the time of publishing may differ based on each state’s adoption of new standards.

            Ideas contributed and updated by: Julie Galle Baggenstoss and Melissa Dittmar-Joy

            Revised and copyright:  August 2022 @ ArtsNOW

            PATTERNS IN MOTION K-1

            PATTERNS IN MOTION

            PATTERNS IN MOTION

            Learning Description

            Understand the structure of pattern and sequence through the elements of dance and choreography using movements that represent geometric shapes!

             

            Learning Targets

            GRADE BAND: K-1
            CONTENT FOCUS: DANCE & MATH
            LESSON DOWNLOADS:

            Download PDF of this Lesson

            "I Can" Statements

            “I Can…”

            • I can recognize the difference between a pattern and a sequence in shapes and movements.

            • I can create choreography to represent a pattern or sequence.

            • I can create movements to represent geometric shapes.

            Essential Questions

            • What are different ways we can represent sequence and patterns through movement?

            • How can I create choreography to represent a pattern or sequence?

            • How can I use movement to represent geometric shapes?

             

            Georgia Standards

            Curriculum Standards

            Kindergarten: 

            K.PAR.6: Explain, extend, and create repeating patterns with a repetition, not exceeding 4 and describe patterns involving the passage of time.

             

            K.GSR.8: Identify, describe, and compare basic shapes encountered in the environment, and form two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional figures.

             

            Grade 1: 

            1.PAR.3: Identify, describe, extend, and create repeating patterns, growing patterns, and shrinking patterns found in real-life situations.

             

            1.GSR.4: Compose shapes, analyze the attributes of shapes, and relate their parts to the whole.

             

             

             

             

            Arts Standards

            Kindergarten:

            ESDK.CR.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the choreographic process. 

             

            ESDK.CR.2 Demonstrate an understanding of dance as a form of communication. 

             

            ESDK.PR.1 Identify and demonstrate movement elements, skills, and terminology in dance

             

            ESDK.RE.1 Demonstrate critical and creative thinking in dance.

             

            ESDK.CN.3 Identify connections between dance and other areas of knowledge.

             

            Grade 1:

            ESD1.CR.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the choreographic process.

             

            ESD1.CR.2 Demonstrate an understanding of dance as a form of communication.

             

            ESD1.PR.1 Identify and demonstrate movement elements, skills, and terminology in dance.

             

            ESD1.RE.1 Demonstrate critical and creative thinking in dance.

             

            ESD1.CN.3 Identify connections between dance and other areas of knowledge.

             

             

             

            South Carolina Standards

            Curriculum Standards

            Kindergarten:

            K.ATO.6 Describe simple repeating patterns using AB, AAB, ABB, and ABC type patterns.

             

            K.G.2 Identify and describe a given shape and shapes of objects in everyday situations to include two-dimensional shapes (i.e., triangle, square, rectangle, hexagon, and circle) and three-dimensional shapes (i.e., cone, cube, cylinder, and sphere). 

             

            Grade 1:1.ATO.9 Create, extend and explain using pictures and words for: a. repeating patterns (e.g., AB, AAB, ABB, and ABC type patterns); b. growing patterns (between 2 and 4 terms/figures).

             

            1.G.4 Identify and name two-dimensional shapes (i.e., square, rectangle, triangle, hexagon, rhombus, trapezoid, and circle).

             

             

            Arts Standards

            Anchor Standard 1: I can use movement exploration to discover and create artistic ideas and works.

            Anchor Standard 2: I can choreograph a dance.

            Anchor Standard 3: I can perform movements using the dance elements.

            Anchor Standard 5: I can describe, analyze, and evaluate a dance.

            Anchor Standard 7: I can relate dance to other arts disciplines, content areas, and careers. 

             

             

             

            Key Vocabulary

            Content Vocabulary

            • Pattern - A set of elements repeated in a predictable manner
            • Sequence - A series of elements arranged with intention and does not always follow a pattern
            • Geometric shape - A figure that is defined by mathematical properties and is measurable

             

             

            Arts Vocabulary

            • Choreography - The art of composing dances and planning and arranging the movements, steps, and patterns of dancers
            • Choreographer - A person who creates dances
            • Body shapes - Forms that the entire body or body parts take when making movement

             

             

            Materials

              • Music source and speakers
              • Cards printed with shapes
              • Cards printed with groups of shapes in patterns or sequences

               

               

              Instructional Design

              Opening/Activating Strategy

              • Play music with a strong beat. As a class group, lead students in a warm up that establishes the beat of the music such as marching or clapping.
              • Next, lead them in making movements that have obvious geometric qualities using vocabulary from The Elements of Dance to describe body shapes. Examples include straight lines using arms and legs, rounded shapes using arms, etc.

               

              Work Session

              Movement discovery

              • Show students cards with geometric shapes printed on them and ask them to move to the beat to represent the shape of the card until you show a different card. Repeat this several times until students have discovered/created several different movements.

              Establish pattern versus sequence:

              • Continue the discovery activity holding the cards up for shorter periods of time and in patterns, ABAB at first and then more complicated. Open a handle question: How am I arranging the cards? How am I arranging your dance steps?
              • Ask students to explain the arrangement of the dance steps. They should arrive at the concept of patterns.
              • Repeat two previous steps using a sequence instead of a pattern.
              • Discuss the difference between a sequence and a pattern.

              Choreographic process

              • Divide students into small groups. Give each group a card printed with a pattern or a sequence represented in shapes. Without sharing with other groups, students identify whether their card shows a pattern or sequence.
              • Students create dances based on the order of shapes on their cards and the dance movements that they discovered during previous segments of the lesson. Encourage students to use movements from the warm-up or create new movements using the movements from warm-up as inspiration.
              • Allow students time to practice their dance.

              Performance

              • Peers identify whether the performing group is showing a sequence or pattern. When a pattern is performed, peers describe the pattern in terms of shapes represented by the dance movements.

              Closing Reflection

              • Groups explain why they chose certain movements to express certain shapes. 
              • Students discuss their understanding of the difference between a sequence and a pattern.

              Assessments

              Formative

              Teachers will assess understanding through: 

              • Student engagement in collaborative discussion about movement choices and math concepts.
              • Students’ use of dance vocabulary to describe body shapes during discussion.
              • Students’ progress toward a finished choreography during collaborative group work period.

               

               

              Summative

              CHECKLIST

              • Students can present choreography that accurately portrays their assigned pattern or sequence. 
              • Students can recognize the difference between a pattern and a sequence in shapes and movements.
              • Students can create dance movements that represent geometric shapes.
              • Students can explain why they chose certain movements to express certain shapes.
              • Peers/audience can accurately identify the pattern or sequence expressed in peer choreography.

               

              Differentiation

              Acceleration:

              • Have groups create their own patterns using movements that represent geometric shapes and lines.
              • Incorporate ELA concepts by having students use rhyming words to create a pattern (example: ABAB - Cat, fox, hat, box) and then create choreography to represent the pattern.

              Remediation:

              • Create choreography as a whole class to the same pattern or sequence. Then, break students into groups to create their choreography to their assigned pattern or sequence.
              • Establish certain movements for shapes as a class that all students will use in their pattern or sequence choreography. Once students demonstrate mastery of the pattern or sequence using movements established as a class, allow students to create or choose their own movements for their pattern or sequence.

               

               ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

              • Classroom Tips: Set up chairs and tables in a circular format to maximize students’  engagement and ability to see their peers during the activity and  performance. Also establish parameters for acceptable movement choices and discuss audience  behavior/etiquette with students.
              • The Elements of Dance

              *This integrated lesson provides differentiated ideas and activities for educators that are aligned to a sampling of standards. Standards referenced at the time of publishing may differ based on each state’s adoption of new standards.

              Ideas contributed and updated by: Julie Galle Baggenstoss and Melissa Dittmar-Joy. Updated by Katy Betts.

               

              Revised and copyright:  April 2024 @ ArtsNOW

              DRAMATIC WRITING WITH ANSEL ADAMS 2-3

              DRAMATIC WRITING WITH ANSEL ADAMS

              DRAMATIC WRITING WITH ANSEL ADAMS

              Learning Description

              Using Ansel Adams photographs for inspiration, students will explore creative writing, directing, and acting.

               

              Learning Targets

              GRADE BAND: 2-3
              CONTENT FOCUS: THEATRE & ELA
              LESSON DOWNLOADS:

              Download PDF of this Lesson

              "I Can" Statements

              “I Can…”

              • I can use a photograph as inspiration for creative writing and acting based in a particular setting.
              • I can work with a group to bring to life a scene inspired by a photograph.

              Essential Questions

              • How can visual art be a catalyst for writing and acting? 

               

              Georgia Standards

              Curriculum Standards

              Grade 2:

              ELACC2W3  Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure. 

               

              ELACC2SL4  Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.  

               

              Grade 3:

              ELAGSE3W3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

               

              ELAGSE3SL4 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details,

              speaking clearly at an understandable pace.

               

              Arts Standards

              Grade 2: 

              TAES2.2 Developing scripts through improvisation and other theatrical methods.

                

              TAES2.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments.

               

              VA2.RE.1 Discuss personal works of art and the artwork of others to enhance visual literacy.

               

              VA2.CN.1 Investigate and discover the personal relationships of artists to community, culture, and the world through making and studying art.

               

              Grade 3:

              TAES3.2 Developing scripts through improvisation and other theatrical methods.

                

              TAES3.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments.

               

              VA3.RE.1 Use a variety of approaches for art criticism and to critique personal works of

              art and the artwork of others to enhance visual literacy.

               

              VA3.CN.1 Investigate and discover the personal relationships of artists to community, culture, and the world through making and studying art.

               

               

               

              South Carolina Standards

              Curriculum Standards

              Grade 2:

              ELA.2.C.3.1 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences. When writing: 

              1. establish and describe character(s) and setting; 
              2. sequence events and use temporal words to signal event order (e.g., before, after).

               

              Grade 3:

              ELA.3.C.3.1 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences. When writing: 

              1. establish a setting and introduce a narrator or characters; 
              2. use temporal words and phrases to sequence a plot structure; 
              3. use descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop characters.

               

               

              Arts Standards

              THEATRE

              Anchor Standard 3: I can act in improvised scenes and written scripts.

               

              VISUAL ARTS

              Anchor Standard 5: I can interpret and evaluate the meaning of an artwork.

               

               

               

              Key Vocabulary

              Content Vocabulary

              • Character - Actor or actress in a specified role.
              • Setting - Environment or place of action. 
              • Plot - List, timetable, or scheme dealing with any of the various arrangements of a story or play.

               

              Arts Vocabulary

              • Theater - Dramatic literature or its performance; drama.
              • Photography - the process of capturing an image – a photograph – with a camera, either on paper or through a digital medium.

               

               

              Materials

              • Index cards and lined paper 
              • Pencils 
              • Copies of Ansel Adams photographs (old calendars are great sources for these)

               

              Instructional Design

              Opening/Activating Strategy

              Settings

              • Have students stand by their desks, or in open space.
              • Call out a setting (e.g., desert, baseball stadium, birthday party, or under the ocean), and have students enact a person or thing in the environment.  As appropriate, allow students to use voices and make sounds, or instruct them to be in the setting in silence.
              • Use observational language to comment on student choices (e.g., “I see Sara has her arms to be a cactus” or “Dylan is wiggling his body as a snake on the rug.”)
              • Continue to call out a variety of settings.  Alternate between natural settings and human settings.  Allow students to be objects or natural forces in the settings, or people interacting with the settings.

               

              Work Session

                  Process 

                  • Pass out Ansel Adams photos to the students. Explain that Ansel Adams was a famous American photographer known for his photos of American outdoor landscapes including Yosemite, Big Sur, the Sierras.  
                  • Ask the students to study their photo and examine the visual details:  “What is the first thing your eye is drawn to?  What lines and shapes do you see in the photo?  Did Adams take it from near or far?  How do the light and dark areas work together?  Where is the light source in the image, and which areas are in shadow?  Why do you think Adams chose to take this photograph?”
                  • Have students imagine/visualize details about the setting in the photo, saying:  “Where is this place?  You can make it up. It can be anywhere in the world. What season is it--winter, early spring, etc.?  What time of day is it - early morning, high noon, sunset? What sounds and smells are there? Is the wind blowing? Are birds chirping or other animals making sounds even though you can’t see them? Can you smell pine trees, flowers, or the ocean? If you could place yourself in this picture, where would you be?” 
                  • Tell the students:  “Place the picture in front of you and stand or sit as you imagine you would be in the picture. Now, close your eyes and take a deep breath of the clean air in this place. Listen to the sounds in your environment. Take another deep breath and smell the beautiful aromas.”
                  • One at a time, ask each student to make a sound that they hear in their environment. 
                  • Ask students to think of 3 descriptive phrases about their environment. For example, instead of saying, “the wind,” describe “the loud blowing wind”, “the fierce cry of an eagle,” or the “steep, snowy mountainside.”   Even though the pictures are black and white, encourage students to feel free to use color in their descriptive phrases.  Have the students write down their phrases on a card or piece of paper.  Ask them how they can expand or add to their phrases to make them more descriptive – suggest including texture, color, size, shape, temperature, or other qualities or details.
                  • Have students practice using their descriptive phrases in sentences to describe their settings.  Instruct them to speak as if they are in the setting (e.g., “I am standing with my feet on the edge of the babbling stream.  The water is as cold as ice and shiny like a mirror.  I see silvery fish swimming by with lightning speed.”)  Coach and assist students as needed.
                  • Ask student volunteers to come up and present, imagining themselves in the setting in the photograph.  They should use their voices and bodies to express the feelings and elements in their writing.

                   

                  Bringing the Photograph to Life 

                  • Select a student and guide them to cast three classmates as elements in their setting. The student should announce the element and then choose a classmate to portray it. (E.g., “Someone will be the grass blowing in the wind.”)  Once chosen, the classmate should come to the front and view the photograph.  
                  • Guide the student to direct the elements, telling each classmate where they will be in the live picture, how they will stand or move, and what sounds they will make.  
                  • Once the setting is established, have the student walk/hike/swim into their environment, take their place, use their body and voice to inhabit the setting (e.g., shivering for a cold setting, speaking loud for a distant setting, walking carefully over sharp stones, using a hand to block out the bright sun) and then describe their setting using their descriptive phrases.  
                  • Show the photograph around the room, and solicit comments from the class on how the students brought the setting to life.
                  • Have additional students volunteer to cast, enter, and describe.

                  Possibly:  once the process is established, allow the students to work in groups in different areas of the room, taking turns to use their group-mates to create their settings.

                   

                  Closing Reflection

                  Ask:  “How did we get ideas of what to act from the photos?  How did we use our voices and bodies to become elements of the different settings in the photos?  Also:  How would you describe Ansel Adams’s photos to someone who hasn’t seen any of them?”

                   

                  Assessments

                  Formative

                  • Students created and used three descriptive phrases.. 
                  • Students effectively communicated their ideas.
                  • Students responded appropriately to the Adams images.

                     

                    Summative

                    • Students cast and directed their scenes effectively
                    • Students enacted their roles in the scenes effectively.
                    • Students’ written phrases show awareness of the senses and evocative details.

                     

                    Differentiation

                    Acceleration:

                    • Have students write out their ideas in full paragraph format.
                    • Allow students who are playing elements of the setting to speak from the viewpoints of those elements:  “How does the tree feel?  What is the lake thinking?”

                     

                    Remediation:

                    Use a single photograph with the entire class, and model the process all together.  Cast a small group as elements in the setting, and then model being the person entering and inhabiting the setting.  Repeat the process with a second photo, drafting a student to be the person entering the setting.  You may want to use a photo and have the entire class become elements in the photo, allowing multiple students to be the same thing:  mountains, rocks, trees, clouds.

                     

                     ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

                    • http://www.anseladams.com 
                    • http://www.archives.gov/research/anseladams/ 
                    • “Ansel Adams Original Photograph - Black & White Photography.” The Ansel Adams Gallery, shop.anseladams.com/collections/original-photographs-by-ansel-adams. Accessed 28 June 2023. 

                    *This integrated lesson provides differentiated ideas and activities for educators that are aligned to a sampling of standards. Standards referenced at the time of publishing may differ based on each state’s adoption of new standards.

                    Ideas contributed and updated by: Susie Spear Purcell and Barry Stewart Mann

                    Revised and copyright:  June 2023 @ ArtsNOW

                    APOSTROPHE TABLEAU 2-3

                    APOSTROPHE TABLEAU

                    APOSTROPHE TABLEAU

                    Learning Description

                    Apostrophes are so much fun – let’s learn about the apostrophe’s uses!  Students will collaborate in word tableaux, creating sentences of their own, to differentiate between the plural and possessive uses of apostrophes.

                     

                    Learning Targets

                    GRADE BAND: 2-3
                    CONTENT FOCUS: THEATRE & ELA
                    LESSON DOWNLOADS:

                    Download PDF of this Lesson

                    "I Can" Statements

                    “I Can…”

                    • I can tell the difference between plural and possessive nouns and know when to use an apostrophe.

                    Essential Questions

                    • How and when do we use apostrophes in plural and possessive nouns?

                     

                    Georgia Standards

                    Curriculum Standards

                    Grade 2:  

                    ELAGSE2L2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.     c. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.

                     

                    Grade 3:  

                    ELAGSE3L2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.   d. Form and use possessives.

                     

                     

                     

                    Arts Standards

                    Grades 2 & 3: 

                    TA.PR.1 Act by communicating and sustaining roles in formal and informal environments.

                     

                     

                    South Carolina Standards

                    Curriculum Standards

                    Grade 2:  

                    ELA.L.5.2 Use apostrophes to form contractions and singular possessive nouns. 

                     

                    Grade 3:  

                    ELA.L. 5.2 Use apostrophes to form contractions and singular and plural possessives.

                     

                    Arts Standards

                    Anchor Standard 1: I can create scenes and write scripts using story elements and structure. 

                    Anchor Standard 3: I can act in improvised scenes and written scripts.

                     

                     

                    Key Vocabulary

                    Content Vocabulary

                    • Punctuation – Marks used in writing to separate sentences or to clarify meaning.

                    • Apostrophe – A punctuation mark used to indicate either possession or the omission of letters or numbers (as in contractions).

                    • Contraction – A combination of words in which omitted letters are replaced by an apostrophe.

                    • Possessive – Indicating possession or ownership.

                    • Plural – Indicating more than one item.

                    • Singular – Indicating only one item.

                     

                    Arts Vocabulary

                    • Tableau – A frozen picture created by actors.

                    • Line – Words or sentences spoken by an actor.

                    • Vocal expression – Conveyance of meaning using the elements of voice.

                     

                     

                    Materials

                    • Apostrophes-on-a-stick (made with the attached enlarged apostrophe. Other options include an apostrophe printed or by hand, on cardstock. Simply glue onto the handle (a stick, ruler, straw, pencil, or other similar item).  Have enough of these for each group of 4-5 students.

                     

                    Instructional Design

                    Opening/Activating Strategy

                    • Teach and sing (to the tune of “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star”):

                           I see an s at the end of a noun.

                           Apostrophe in or leave it out?

                           If it has something to possess

                           Then it should be ‘s.

                           But if it’s a plural – more than one,

                           No apostrophe – that’s how it’s done!

                    Collectively develop gestures to go along with the song (e.g., draw an S in the air, arms embracing to convey “possess”, thumbs up for “that’s how it’s done,” etc.).

                     

                    Work Session

                      • Introduce/review what an apostrophe is, and its various uses: possessives, contractions, omitted letters.  Focus on possessives.  Discuss how a possessive is formed in general by putting ‘s at the end of a word; a plural is formed by putting an s at the end of the word; and these two formations are often confused with one another, so people put in an apostrophe into a plural where it doesn’t belong, and people often leave it out of a possessive where it does belong. 

                                  Optional:  Do an online image search for ‘misused apostrophes’ or “signs with incorrect       

                                  plurals’ for real world examples showing this common confusion.

                       

                      Drama Instruction

                      • Introduce the Drama strategy of Tableau – a frozen picture created by actors.  Model tableau with a small group – create a tableau of a playground.  Encourage different shapes within the tableau, allow actors to be both living and non-living elements in the tableau, and be clear that all must be in the same picture.
                      • Introduce the idea of making a tableau of a word – choose a simple 3- or 4- letter word.  Draft students to use their bodies to create a tableau of the word, e.g., L-I-O-N (one student shapes herself into an “L”, one into an “I”, etc.).  
                      • Remind them that they can use their full bodies, or certain parts, and that there are many ways to create each letter. Possibly, have all students stand to make the shapes of the letters, to give the actors a variety of ideas. 

                       

                      • Then add another actor to be an “S” at the end – L-I-O-N-S.  Solicit a suggestion of a sentence with the word as a plural, e.g., “The lions are all asleep.”  Have the group say the sentence together, inserting the spelling (spoken individually by each letter) after the word, e.g., “The lions - L-I-O-N-S - are all asleep.”  This is their line of text.  
                      • Discuss elements of vocal expression:  tone of voice, volume, articulation. Have students, or the entire class, explore how to say the line with vocal expression.
                      • Next, develop a sentence with the word as a possessive, e.g., “The lion’s mane is very shaggy.”  Have one of the actors – either the actor who is the last letter of the word or the “S” actor – hold up the stick apostrophe in the correct location in the word tableau.  Have the group say the new sentence together, inserting the spelling again, spoken individually by the actors, after the word, e.g., “The lion’s – L-I-O-N-apostrophe-S – mane is very shaggy.”  Have students say this line also with appropriate expression.
                      • If deemed necessary, repeat the modeling process with another example, perhaps with another type of noun, e.g.,  “I have a hundred rocks – R-O-C-K-S – in my collection,” and “Look at this rock’s – R-O-C-K-apostrophe-S – weird shape,” or “Great minds – M-I-N-D-S – think alike,” and “I see it in my mind’s – M-I-N-D-apostrophe-S - eye.”
                      • Brainstorm a variety of 3- or 4-letter nouns – write them on the board or on a screen.  They can be animals, objects, even abstract concepts, e.g., dog, book, sun, love, tree, plum, cup, wind.  Avoid nouns ending in “S” (e.g., boss, mess) or with irregular or more complicated plurals (e.g., wolf, man, box, fish).  Use nouns that pluralize with -s.
                      • Divide the class into working groups of four or five students.  Instruct them to replicate the modeled process with one of the brainstormed words (or an appropriate noun of their own choosing):  
                        • Create a word tableau with an s at the end, using their bodies creatively to make the shapes of the letters.
                        • Create a sentence with the word as a plural. 
                        • Speak the sentence with the spelled-out word, using their voices expressively.
                        • Create a sentence with the word as a possessive
                        • Insert the apostrophe in the appropriate place. 
                        • Speak the sentence with the spelled out word, including the apostrophe.
                      • Have each group present their two tableaux to the class.  After each, examine the choices the group made and determine if they included or left out the apostrophe correctly.

                       

                      Closing Reflection

                      • Reflect on the process of creating the groups’ tableaux. “How did you work together to create it, and then to say your lines?  How did you use your bodies to represent the letters?  What are the two forms that we focused on?  What is the difference between them, and which one generally uses an apostrophe?”
                      • Return to the song and sing it again, using the gestures developed by the class at the beginning of the lesson.

                       

                      Assessments

                      Formative

                      • Assess understanding of the difference between the possessive and the plural, based on prior knowledge and/or after learning and singing the song.
                      • Observe how students use their bodies to create the letters, and how they use their voices to express their lines.
                      • Observe and listen in on group processes for creating their tableaux and lines, looking for respectful collaboration, sharing of ideas, and inclusion of all group members.

                         

                        Summative

                        Have students choose three words from the word bank on the board and write two sentences for each, one with the word as a plural, and the other with the word as a possessive. Stipulate that they cannot use the word that their group used, and they cannot repeat sentences that any of the groups used.

                         

                         

                         

                         

                        Differentiation

                        Acceleration: 

                        • Challenge the students to make their sentences connect in meaning and context.  (e.g., “All of the pigs – P-I-G-S - were snorting.  We heard one pig’s – P-I-G-apostrophe-S – squeals above the chorus of snorts.”
                        • Add in plural possessives, to clarify the use of apostrophes there, so that the modeling offers three lines, and each group must come up with three lines (e.g., “There were so many toys – T-O-Y-S – in the playroom.  One toy’s – T-O-Y-apostrophe-S – speaker was playing some very irritating music.  The toys’ – T-O-Y-S-apostrophe many colors were like a kaleidoscope.”
                        • Add in contractions for “is” to further differentiate.  E.g., “That pig’s about to run away” or “the noisy toy’s getting on my last nerve.”
                        • Focus on pronoun exceptions – possessives without apostrophes (its, not it’s; whose, not who’s; hers, not her’s; ours, not our’s; yours, not your’s; theirs, not their’s).
                        • Practice with words that end with s – “Here come the buses/the bus’s wheel is flat”; the Davises are coming to visit/Mr. Davis’s mother is with them.”

                        Remediation: 

                        • Cycle all students through groups in front of the class, rather than having groups work independently.
                        • Have the whole class decide on and practice a shape for each letter.
                        • Do fewer examples and use longer words so more students can be in each (if guided by the teacher in front of the class).
                        • Use words for items visible in the classroom, and make the sentences correspond to visible phenomena, (e.g., “There are lamps L-A-M-P-S – in our classroom,” and “The tall lamp’s – L-A-M-P-apostrophe-S shade is white.”)

                        *This integrated lesson provides differentiated ideas and activities for educators that are aligned to a sampling of standards. Standards referenced at the time of publishing may differ based on each state’s adoption of new standards.

                         Ideas contributed by:  Barry Stewart Mann

                         Revised and copyright:  August 2022 @ ArtsNOW