Grades 4-8:
Light and Sound

VISUAL ARTS

Light & Sound

Description

In this program, we investigated Light and Sound through STEM activities, visual art, music, and dance.

 

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Explain reflection and refraction.
  • Explain how pixels work together to give off colors.
  • Describe how sound waves move and how frequency is related to the sound an object produces..
  • Show how lighting and sound affects a piece of choreography.
  • Demonstrated how transparent, translucent, and opaque work together in visual art.

Essential Questions

  • How can I obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the nature of light and how light interacts with objects?
  • How can I obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how sound is produced and changed and how sound and/ or light can be used to communicate?
  • How can I develop and use a model to compare and contrast how light and sound waves are reflected, refracted, or absorbed through various materials?
  • How can I develop and use a model to illustrate how transparent, translucent, and opaque materials work in relation to light?

Curriculum Standards

S4P1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the nature of light and how light interacts with objects.

 

  1. Plan and carry out investigations to observe and record how light interacts with various materials to classify them as opaque, transparent, or translucent.
  2. Plan and carry out investigations to describe the path light travels from a light source to a mirror and how it is reflected by the mirror using different angles.
  3. Plan and carry out an investigation utilizing everyday materials to explore examples of when light is refracted. (Clarification statement: Everyday materials could include prisms, eyeglasses, and a glass of water.

S4P2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how sound is produced and changed and how sound and/or light can be used to communicate.

 

  1. Plan and carry out an investigation utilizing everyday objects to produce sound and predict the effects of changing the strength or speed of vibrations.
  2. Design and construct a device to communicate across a distance using light and/or sound.

S8P4. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to support the claim that electromagnetic (light) waves behave differently than mechanical (sound) waves.

 

  1. Develop and use a model to compare and contrast how light and sound waves are reflected, refracted, absorbed, diffracted or transmitted through various materials. (Clarification statement: Include echo and how color is seen but do not cover interference and scattering.)

 

Arts Standards

VA4.CR.1 Engage in the creative process to generate and visualize ideas by using subject matter and symbols to communicate meaning.

VA4.CR.2 Create works of art based on selected themes.

VA4.CN.3 Develop life skills through the study and production of art (e.g. collaboration, creativity, critical thinking, communication).

VA5.PR.1 Plan and participate in appropriate exhibition(s) of works of art to develop the identity of self as artist.

VA5.CN.3 Develop life skills through the study and production of art (e.g. collaboration, creativity, critical thinking, communication).

VA6.CR.1 Visualize and generate ideas for creating works of art.

VA6.CR.3 Engage in an array of processes, media, techniques, and/or technology through experimentation, practice, and persistence.

VA6.CR.6 Keep an ongoing visual and verbal record to explore and develop works of art.

VA6.PR.1 Plan, prepare, and present completed works of art.

VA7.CR.1 Visualize and generate ideas for creating works of art.

VA7.CR.2 Choose from a range of materials and/or methods of traditional and contemporary artistic practices to plan and create works of art.

VA7.CR.3 Engage in an array of processes, media, techniques, and/or technology through experimentation, practice, and persistence.

VA7.PR.1 Plan, prepare, and present completed works of art

VA8.CR.1 Visualize and generate ideas for creating works of art.

VA8.CR.2 Choose from a range of materials and/or methods of traditional and contemporary artistic practices to plan and create works of art.

VA8.CR.3 Engage in an array of processes, media, techniques, and/or technology through experimentation, practice, and persistence.

ESD4.CR.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the choreographic process.

ESD4.CR.2 Demonstrate an understanding of dance as a form of communication.

ESD4.PR.4 Understand and apply music concepts to dance.

ESD4.CN.3 Integrate dance into other areas of knowledge.

ESD5.CR.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the choreographic process.

ESD5.PR.2 Understand and model dance etiquette as a classroom participant, performer, and observer.

ESD5.PR.4 Understand and apply music concepts to dance. a. Demonstrate and create movement in response to a variety of musical selections. b. Demonstrate musicality while performing dance phrases.

ESD5.RE.1 Demonstrate critical and creative thinking in dance.

MSD.PR.4 Understand and apply music concepts to dance.

MSD.RE.1 Demonstrate critical and creative thinking in dance.

MSD.CR.2 Demonstrate an understanding of dance as a form of communication.

MSD.CN.3 Demonstrate an understanding of dance as it relates to other areas of knowledge.

ESGM4.CR.1a. Improvise rhythmic question and answer phrases using a variety of sound sources.

ESGM4.PR.2a. Perform rhythmic patterns with body percussion and a variety of instruments using appropriate technique.

EESGM4.RE.1c. Identify and classify (e.g. families, ensembles) classroom, orchestral, American folk, and world instruments by sight and sound.

ESGM4.CN.1b. Discuss connections between music and disciplines outside the fine arts.

ESGM5.CR.1 Improvise rhythmic phrases.

ESGM5.PR.2a. Perform rhythmic patterns with body percussion and a variety of instruments using appropriate technique.

ESGM5.RE.1b. Describe music using appropriate vocabulary (e.g. fortissimo/pianissimo, presto/largo/moderato/allegro/adagio, legato/staccato, major/minor), intervals (e.g. step, skip, repeat, leap), timbre adjectives (e.g. dark/bright), and texture (e.g. unison/harmony).

ESGM5.RE.1c. Identify and classify (e.g. families, ensembles) classroom, orchestral, American folk and world instruments by sight and sound.

ESGM5.CN.1b. Discuss connections between music and disciplines outside the fine arts

MSGM6.RE.1a. Recognize and describe musical events in an aural example using appropriate musical terminology

MSGM7.CR.1b. Improvise simple rhythmic and melodic variations

MSGM7.RE.1a. Recognize and describe musical events in an aural example using appropriate musical terminology

MSGM8.CR.1b. Improvise melodic embellishments and simple rhythmic and melodic variations.

MSGM8.RE.1a. Recognize and describe musical events in an aural example using appropriate musical terminology

 

Content Vocabulary

  • Reflection: the throwing back by a body or surface of light, heat, or sound without absorbing it.
  • Refraction: A change of direction that light undergoes by passing obliquely through one medium.
  • Sound: vibrations that travel through the air or another medium and can be heard when they reach a person's or animal's ear.
  • Sound waves: a vibration of waves by which sound is projected.
  • Pitch: the quality of a sound governed by the rate of vibrations producing it.
  • Frequency: the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time
  • Pixel: an area of illumination on a display screen, many pixels compose an image.
  • Digit: any of the numerals from 0 to 9.
  • Digital: a series of the digits 0 and 1 represented by values of a physical quantity such as voltage.
  • Additive color theory: starts without light (black) and light sources of various wavelengths combine to make a color.
  • Subtractive color theory: starts with light (white), colored inks, paints, or filters between the light source subtract wave lengths from the light, give it color.
  • Binary code: a coding system using the binary digits 0 and 1 to represent a letter, digit, or other character in a computer or other electronic device.
  • Bits: a unit of information expressed as either a 0 or 1 in binary notation.
  • RGB code: the RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
  • Electric circuit: a path in which electrons from a voltage or current source flow.
  • Conductor: a material that transmits heat, electricity, or sound.
  • Insulator: a substance which does not allow the full passage of heat or sound.
  • Open circuit: an electrical circuit that is not complete.
  • Closed circuit: an electrical circuit that is complete.

Arts Vocabulary

  • Opaque: not able to be seen through; not transparent.
  • Transparent: allowing light to pass through so that objects behind can be distinctly seen.
  • Translucent: allowing light, but not detailed shapes, to pass through; semitransparent.
  • Literal movement: Movements that show exact meaning and actions.
  • Abstract movement: symbolic movement.
  • Choreography: the sequence of steps and movements in dance
  • Levels of Dance (low, middle, high): The three levels in dance movement are high, middle and low.
  • Percussive: This refers to a quality of movement characterized by sharp starts and stops; staccato jabs of energy.
  • Rhythm: a strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement or sound.
  • Mood: atmosphere that evokes certain feelings or vibes
  • Pitch: highness or lowness of sound.
  • Timbre: distinctive quality of sounds; the tone color or special sound that makes one instrument or voice sound different from another.

Materials

Materials Provided by Teachers

  • Two Plastic Bottles (approximately 12-16 oz in size)
  • Masking Tape (one roll)
  • Foil (1-2 foil sheets or approximately one foot from a roll)
  • Teaspoon of Uncooked Rice
  • Five rubber bands
  • Ziplock baggies to package materials for students
  • Lamination Pocket, laminated (cut one piece in half, students need ½ apiece)
  • Grid paper
  • One Small Bottle of Food Coloring
  • Alka Seltzer (one tablet per student)
  • Four LED lights
  • Two Coin Battery per student
  • One Bottle of Liquid Glue per student
  • One Piece of Cardstock
  • Journal
  • Pencil
  • Markers
  • CD
  • Flashlight
  • Watercolor paint
  • Watercolor paper
  • Clear tape
  • Kaleidoscope Kit
  • Colored paper (three half-sheets of assorted colors)
  • Plastic sheets (three half-sheets of assorted colors, you may cut plastic notebook dividers for these)
  • One Roll of Plastic tape

Materials Students Provided at Home

  • Large Box
  • Scissors
  • Bowl
  • Saran Wrap
  • Objects from around the house (tissue boxes, toilet paper tubes, etc.)
  • Salt
  • Newspaper (to protect surfaces)
  • Vegetable oil
  • Shaker Object (pack of tic tacs or bottle of sprinkles, etc.)
  • Grocery Bag

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

Day 1 AM Session:

  • Introduce Light Refraction with Jar & Pencil Activity
    • Fill a clear container with water.
    • Tell the students you will be placing the pencil in the water.
    • Ask the first question.
    • Place the pencil in the water.
    • Give students a few moments to make observations.
  • Ask the following questions:
    • What do you think is going to happen?
    • What do you observe?
    • What do you believe is causing the “bent/ split” pencil illusion?
    • Introduce the word refraction

Day 1 PM Session:

  • Review the Light Box Magic STEM challenge from the morning session and allow students to discuss their observations/ discoveries
    • How the amount of light in the box may change with different amounts of water, different time of day, blocking the top side of the bottle, etc?
    • Light Box Example
  • Investigate the CD with reflections of light using house lighting and the flashlight provided
    • Possible questions to ask: What shapes and colors do you see in the rainbow?  What do you notice when you use two CDs? What do you notice when you put the flashlight close to the CD?
    • How does the CD act as a prism?
    • Allow students to write their observations in their journals.
    • Investigating Light

 

Day 2 AM Session:

  • Ask students the following questions to prompt discussions verbally or in the chat
    • What do you think of when you hear the word sound?
    • What do you think of when you hear the word waves?
  • Discuss that sound is made of vibrations and invisible soundwaves
  • Demonstrate and have students complete dancing sprinkles/ rice activity at the same time to demonstrate how you can “see” soundwaves
  • Sound Waves Example
  • Discuss how sound waves travel, how vibrations are recognized as different sounds, and how the size and shape of the sound waves determine the kind of sound heard.
  • Review various musical instruments, homemade and traditional. Have students compare and predict sounds of these instruments and how the sounds (vibrations) were created.
  • Have students find a way to create sound using objects around them and improvise an 8-beat pattern using that object.
  • Have students create an 8-beat pattern and repeat it. Add to YouTube backing track.

Day 2 PM Session:

  • Students will share their instruments they created after the morning STEM challenge.  Play eight beats of music together as a group/ class.
  • Discuss as a class the following questions
    • What is a shadow?
    • How might artists use shadows?
    • Possible answers: to make things look more realistic, to add depth, etc
  • Find a shadow in your house and spend five minutes sketching the object and its shadow in your journal with a pencil.

 

Day 3 AM Session:

  • Review shadow sculptures from the end of Day 2
  • Introduce how sound is related to dance
  • Students will watch a clip from Broadway’s STOMP to get students thinking about how sound is used in dance.  Video: STOMP - Established in 1994 NYC
    • Ask students what common household instruments they see in the video.

Day 3 PM Session:

  • View images of Yayoi Kusama’s work.  Students will discuss in chat what they observe/ notice about her work. (mirrors, reflections, infinity rooms, duplicates, etc)
  • What makes her work unique?
  • What themes do you notice?

 

Day 4 AM Session:

  • Introduction to vocabulary words transparent, translucent, and opaque by making a lava lamp. Possible questions to ask:
    • After pouring the water and oil into the glass, what do you believe is going to happen when food coloring is added? Will it mix with the water, oil, or both?
    • What do you observe when you initially add the food coloring?
    • If you continue to add food coloring to the water, will the water stay transparent or translucent?
  • Example

Day 4 PM Session:

  • Briefly discuss what an electric circuit is and what materials are used/needed to make a complete (closed) circuit
  • Show students how to use a coin battery to illuminate a LED light
  • STEM Challenge: LED Glue/ Salt Circuit
    • Gather materials: half piece of cardstock, coin battery, LED light, glue, salt and tray/ paper plate to work over
    • Fold the corner of your paper up to make a “switch”
    • “Draw” a line using glue from the folded corner of the paper and then towards the edge.  Be generous with the glue
    • Skip a space for your LED and continue your glue line back near the folded corner
    • add your LED to the space making sure the “legs” are in the glue
    • sprinkle a good layer of salt on the glue.  Lift the paper and dump the extra salt on the tray
    • When it is dry, use the coin cell battery to try and light up your LED
    • **The salt circuit is not a very strong circuit. The light will be dim. You may try paper circuits with copper tape for a brighter light.

Example

Main Activity

Day 1 AM Session: 

  • Students were introduced to the concept of light refraction during the activating strategy.
  • Students watched a video “Liter of Light” to be inspired by how light refraction is being used in 3rd World countries to reduce electricity costs for families.
  • Students STEM activity was to create a way to light up a “room” using light refractions.
  • Teachers demonstrated how to create a Light Box to demonstrate this concept.
  • Step 1: Gather your materials
  • Step 2: Fill your bottles with water (Add a few drops of food coloring if you want!)
  • Step 3: Trace the bottom of the bottles on the top of the box and carefully (and with a parent/older siblings help) cut holes.  Put tinfoil on the top of the box, covering the holes. Poke a hole in the foil over the open. This will help the light reflect into the bottles.
  • Step 4: Carefully (and with a parent/older siblings help) cut a hole in the side of the box to look inside.  We recommend cutting a smaller window or just eye holes.
  • Step 5: Push bottles into holes and look in the viewing window.
  • Example

Adapted from: https://www.trueaimeducation.com/light-box-magic/

  • Teachers demonstrated the relationship between colors and math (seeing the numbers in digital media). The following topics were discussed:
    • What does the word digital mean?
    • Pixels-comparing LED & LCD close up images of digital screens
    • Additive Color Theory vs Subtractive Color Theory
    • Teacher demonstrates a “large scale pixel” by using three lights (red, green, and blue bulbs)
    • Discuss how every pixel has three parts (red component, green component, and blue component)
    • Discuss how each pixel receives three digital (mathematical) signals--one signal for how much red light, how much green light, and how much blue light
    • Discussion of how number values in ColorMath are based on binary code
    • 8-bit Color: An RGB Code has 3 values (256 possible red values, 256 green values, and 256 blue values)
    • Presentation
  • Students can create their own digital art using https://paintz.app

Day 1 PM Session:

  • Students experimented with a flashlight and CD in the activating strategy.
  • After completing the investigation, instruct students trace the CD on a piece of watercolor paper
  • Students will use markers to draw the “lines/ rainbows” created by the flashlight against the CD.  Students may use their paint brush to paint water on top of the marker to use as a watercolor option (water of the washable markers acts like watercolor.
  • Students may then use the watercolor paint to paint outside of the CD showing what shapes and angles they see when observing the reflection of light against the CD
  • Allow approximately 10-15 minutes for students to paint their observations followed by a share out

Examples:

Day 2 AM Session: 

  • After introducing sound and soundwaves in the activating strategy, introduce the vocabulary word pitch.  You may do this by playing different sounds on an instrument
  • Show students a variety of instruments (these may be real instruments or instruments created from household/ classroom objects
  • Example
  • Allow students to find an object to create an instrument out of to play a beat (for example: pencil and water bottle make a drum, using spices/ sprinkles as a shaker)
    • using the instrument they create, play 8 beats together (all playing one note at the same time) followed by 8 beats of 8 counts of a beat of their choice
    • you may do this a few times to allow students to experiment with their instrument
  • STEM Challenge: Create & build your own musical instrument using household items (rubber bands, rice, toilet paper/ paper towel rolls, etc.)
    • students will share out their instruments and play music together at the beginning of their afternoon session

Day 2 PM Session: 

  • After sharing instruments and introducing shadows in the activating strategy, allow students to look at images of shadows made by sculptures
  • Show clip video of (time 1:40-4:00): Tim Noble & Sue Webster, NO - Exhibition & Limited Editions
  • Students are challenged with the task of creating a sculpture with household items that will create an interesting shadow.

 

Day 3 AM Session: 

  • After reviewing shadow sculptures and dance clip in the activating strategy, discuss the following:
    • STOMP is performed in theaters, but it is not a play, musical, or opera. It is not theater in the traditional sense of the word. There is no speech, dialogue or plot. However, it does have two characteristics of traditional theater: mime and characterization. Each performer has an individual character which is distinct from the others. These characters are brought out through the mime and dance in the show.
    • The entire show is highly choreographed, interweaving dance into all its aspects. In STOMP, there is a symbiotic relationship between dance and music. The music is created within the dance, but the dance itself is dependent on the music for its rhythm and character. STOMP shows a true marriage of movement and music, where both create and enhance each other.
  • Show second video: How To STOMP: Hands & Feet
    • Play the video a second time and ask students to mimic the dance moves taught in the video.  You may need to replay the video to allow
  • Show third video: How to STOMP: Bags
    • Ask students to create their own rhythm using bags from their house and share out
  • Show fourth video: How to STOMP: Breath Mints
    • Ask students to repeat the rhythm taught using something they can shake from their house (breath mints, spices, sprinkles, etc.)
  • Show fifth video: STOMP Pancakes 1 #StompAtHome
  • Think about all the different ways you made sound and the different ways you saw sound made in the STOMP videos.
    • Why do you think the different props made different sounds?
    • Challenge: Create your own STOMP inspired choreography using found sound.
  • Clip
  • STEM Challenge: Create Your Own Hologram
    • Follow directions of how to make a trapezoid pattern (see picture)
    • Cut out the pattern and trace four trapezoids on your clear plastic sheet
    • Cut out the four trapezoids and tape together four of the perpendicular lines to create a square pyramid.
    • Place your finished hologram on top of the video playing on your device
    • Example 1, Example 2

Day 3 PM Session:

  • After introducing Kusama’s work and discussing reflections, have students build their kaleidoscope using the kaleidoscope kit.
  • Allow students time to investigate and place different objects in the kaleidoscope to see how it appears.

Ask students to sketch what they see in their kaleidoscope in their journals

Day 4 AM Session:

  • Discuss a Lighting Director’s role in dance and show Mark Stanley: Lighting the New York City Ballet
    • Discuss how light gives character to dance and creates the mood
    • Light can also do the following: create space, intensity, shapes, shadows, dimensions, etc.
  • Discuss “What is mood? What are examples?”
    • Possible answers: mood is a literary element that evokes certain feelings or vibes in readers, but can be used the same way in dance
    • Examples of moods:  cheerful, reflective, gloomy, humorous, melancholy, whimsical, romantic, mysterious, ominous, calm, lighthearted, hopeful, angry, fearful, tense
  • Discuss “How can you create mood with lights?”
    • colors (how they mix), shadows (what will happen when things are in front of the lights), angle, intensity, movement of light, layers of light, etc.
  • Watch the following video clips and discuss what you believe the mood is and how did the lighting help create the mood?
  • Dance Challenge: Think about how lighting affected the mood in the various performances and complete the following steps:
    • 1. Pick a mood (for example: cheerful)
    • 2. Create a movement phrase that matches your mood.
    • 3. Are there any adjustments you can make to the lighting in your space to match the mood of your choreography?  Example: brighter lights, dimmer, lights, use shadows, colored light, light coming in at a different angle, light movement.

Day 4 PM Session:

  • After introducing circuits and completing LED salt/ glue circuit, show video clip of Tom Fruin’s work and allow students to type their observations in the chat
  • Ask students, “What do you need to make a shadow?”
    • Possible answers: light source, an object to block the sun, an opaque object, etc.
    • Why are some of the shadows in Tom Fruin’s work different colors?
    • Discuss transparent, translucent and opaque materials and how each respond to light.
  • Sculpture Challenge: Make a 3D sculpture incorporating transparent, translucent and opaque materials inspired by Tom Fruin’s work.

Here are some snippets of student work throughout the week: VIDEO

Reflection Questions

  • What colors did you feel worked together and why?
  • What challenges did you have during this process?
  • What tools worked best for your process and why?

 

TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION (Include technology that is integrated directly into the project. Ex: apps, websites for research, virtual field trips, mystery skype calls, etc..)

 

Google Meet

Google Classroom

Virtual STEM + Arts Summer Camp Slideshow

Student Activity Slideshow

Visual Arts Slideshow

https://musiclab.chromeexperiments.com/Sound-Waves/

Video: Liter of Light

Light Magic Box Website

https://Paintz.app

Video (timestamp 1:40-4:00): Tim Noble & Sue Webster, NO - Exhibition & Limited Editions

Video: STOMP - Established in 1994 NYC

Video: How To STOMP: Hands & Feet

Video: How to STOMP: Bags

Video: How to STOMP: Breath Mints

Video: STOMP Pancakes 1 #StompAtHome

Video: Fireworks Hologram Video

Video: Mark Stanley: Lighting the New York City Ballet

Video: Houston Ballet-Reveal-Garrett Smith Choreography

Video: “Ounce of Faith” | Trailer | Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater

Video: Trailer - IN Cognito Full Piece Premiere

Video: Tom Fruin’s Large-Scale Sculptures, Icons of Brooklyn’s Public Spaces

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=85ZptB9kgaM&t=344s

Grades 4-5:
Exploring Color

ART

Visual Arts Component - Exploring Color, Shape and Form

Description

In this program, we will explore color, shape, and form through explorations of 2d and 3d projects. Students will gain a deeper understanding of how these elements work together to help an artist create their compositions. Students will look closely at the work of American artist Jen Stark..

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Create a 3-D form with 2-D materials.
  • explore the relationship between shape and form to create a composition.
  • Explore chemical and physical changes with heat.

Essential Questions

  • How do we use color, shape and form to create 2d and 3d compositions?

Curriculum Standards

MGSE4.G.1 Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

MGSE4.G.3 Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

MGSE5.G.3 Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two-dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.

S5P1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain the differences between a physical change and a chemical change.

Arts Standards

VA4.CR.3 Understand and apply media, techniques, processes, and concepts of two dimensional art.

VA4.CR.4 Understand and apply media, techniques, processes, and concepts of three dimensional art.

VA5.CR.3 Understand and apply media, techniques, processes, and concepts of two dimensional art.

VA5.CR.4 Understand and apply media, techniques, processes, and concepts of three dimensional works of art.

Content Vocabulary

  • Gravity - the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass.
  • 3-Dimensional Shape - a three-dimensional shape can be defined as a solid figure or an object or shape that has three dimensions – length, width and height.
  • Edges - the outside limit of an object, area, or surface; a place or part farthest away from the center of something.
  • Vertices - The common endpoint of two or more rays or line segments.
  • Faces - In any geometric solid that is composed of flat surfaces, each flat surface is called a face.
  • Surface Area - The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
  • Flow - formalizes the idea of the motion of particles in a fluid.

Arts Vocabulary

  • Primary - are basic colors that can be mixed together to produce other colors. They are usually considered to be red, yellow and blue.
  • Secondary - a color resulting from the mixing of two primary colors.
  • Composition - the arrangement of elements within a work of art.
  • Pattern - an underlying structure that organizes surfaces or structures in a consistent, regular manner. Patterns can be described as a repeating unit of shape or form.

Formative Assessment

  • Daily student process reflections.

Summative Assessment

  • Artist statements discussing the themes present in all of their pieces created over the session.

Materials

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

Students looked closely at the art of American Artist Jen Stark. We watched a video of Stark discussing her process.

Main Activity

PROCESS:

Day 1:

We discussed  the color wheel and basic color theory, including warm and cool colors. Students explored what kind of shapes would create the illusion of movement or drips.

Students used illustration markers to create a repeating pattern inspired by the work of Stark.

Day 2:

We watched a video of Jen Stark’s animations and discussed the relationship between the animations and music.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=svakc8t1UYY and created a self portrait photograph incorporating Stark’s art.

We looked closely at Jen Stark’s relief sculptures. Students used colorful cardstock to explore relief sculpture.

Day 3:

We explored  material movement in a new way. Students created relief sculptures with crayons on canvas. They predicted how the wax of the crayon might move and change if heated.

They used heat guns to melt the wax. We discussed physical and chemical changes and states of matter.

Classroom Tips:

Set the classroom up in stations. Most students will be working on 2d and 3d compositions. This limits the number of students using heat guns. We had 2 heat gun stations. They were monitored by an adult at all times.

Reflection Questions

  1. How did you use color and pattern to create variety in your drip composition?
  2. How did you create 3d forms with paper?
  3. How did heat and position change your relief sculpture?

Differentiation

BELOW GRADE LEVEL:

  • Provide a piece of paper with the first “drip”. Students will fill in the rest of the composition.
  • Use pre cut shapes for collage or sculpture building.

ABOVE GRADE LEVEL:

  • Encourage students to work larger and collaboratively on the drip illustration.
  • Set a height perimeter for the cardstock relief sculpture, encouraging students to use measuring tools and piece together paper to reach the required height.

EL STUDENTS:

  • Demonstrate each hands on technique before students begin their work.

Credits

Shannon Green

Grade 5:
Classy Classification of Artsy Animals

CLASSY CLASSIFICATION OF ARTSY ANIMALS

Grade 5: Classy Classification of Animals

Unit Description

In this unit, students will be exploring different methods of modeling animal classification using the arts. They will incorporate methods of visual arts, playwriting, and performing. There will be multiple opportunities for students to engage creatively and collaborate with peers.

Unit Essential Question

How can analyzing animal attributes in the animal classification system help us to understand their role in the ecosystem?

Real World Context

Scientists study and classify animals to gain a better understanding of their needs. Humans are classified as animals, and all animals are interdependent. Scientists need to understand animals to deal with issues such as endangered species, sickness, etc. Classification is important in general because it helps us to organize the world around us and draw meaningful conclusions about groups of things.

Cross-Cutting Interdisciplinary Concepts

Classifying

Projects

Project 1: Create-a-Critter
In this project, students will explore animal attributes by becoming inventive and creating a one-of-a-kind critter using the art technique of “exquisite corpse”.
The synthesis of knowledge of animal classification in this visual way is both engaging and memorable. Students will write a description of their critter detailing the characteristics of each animal group they integrated into their design. Students will name their animal and present their animal to the class via a “Wanted” poster.

Project 2: Playing with Animals
In this project, students will write a fictional play around the premise of a zookeeper trying to solve the problem of “the zoo just received several new animals and no one knows where each animal belongs”. The play will incorporate science content that will demonstrate student knowledge of animal classification. Students will also create 3-D masks to represent the animals in their play. To culminate this project, students will dramatize their play to an audience in order to express the inner workings of the animal classification system.

Project Essential Questions

PROJECT 1:

  • How can I apply my knowledge of animal classification to create a new critter using the “exquisite corpse” technique?

PROJECT 2:

  • How can I develop a play that illustrates how animals are sorted into groups?
  • How can I create a visual artwork that clearly articulates the characteristics of vertebrates?
  • How can dramatizing a play help me to communicate and model scientific concepts?

Standards

Curriculum Standards

S5L1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to group organisms using scientific classification procedures.

  1. Develop a model that illustrates how animals are sorted into groups (vertebrate and invertebrate) and how vertebrates are sorted into groups (fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal) using data from multiple sources.

ELACC5W3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

ELACC5W4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Standards 1–3 above.)

ELAGSE5SL1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

Arts Standards

VA5MC.1 Engages in the creative process to generate and visualize ideas.

VA5PR.1 Creates artworks based on personal experience and selected themes.

VA5PR.2 Understands and applies media, techniques, and processes of two-dimensional art processes (drawing, painting, printmaking, mixed-media) using tools and materials in a safe and appropriate manner to develop skills.

VA5PR.3 Understands and applies media, techniques, and processes of three-dimensional works of art (e.g., ceramics, sculpture, crafts, mixed- media) using tools and materials in a safe and appropriate manner to develop skills.

  1. Creates 3-D artwork that demonstrates a design concept: open or closed form, proportion, balance, color scheme, and movement.

TAES5.2 Developing scripts through improvisation and other theatrical methods

  1. Uses a playwriting process (e.g., pre-write/pre-play; prepare to write/plan dramatization; write; dramatize; reflect and edit; re-write/play; publish/perform)
  2. Applies dramatic elements such as plot, point of view conflict, resolution, and significant events, in creating scripts
  3. Creates an organizing structure appropriate for purpose, audience and context

TAES5.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments

  1. Uses vocal elements such as inflection, pitch, and volume, to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of a character
  2. Uses body and stage movement to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of a character
  3. Uses imagination to make artistic choices in portraying characters
  4. Collaborates with an ensemble to create theatre
  5. Dramatizes literature and original scripts through various dramatic forms such as pantomime, process drama, puppetry, improvisation, plays, and readers’ theatre

Materials to be Purchased for this Unit

  • Rigid Wrap (plaster mesh)
  • small pans (for water for mesh wrap)
  • white face mask
  • tissue paper
  • feathers
  • faux animal fur sheets(or a bolt)
  • mesh netting
  • metallic paper(fish scales)
  • metallic paint(glossy finish to amphibian)
  • acrylic paint
  • safari hat for Zookeeper
  • GarageBand App
  • DoInk Greenscreen App
  • Textured plates
  • Art sticks

Character Education

Components
After completion of the “Playing with Animals” activity, the class can share the play with a first grade class and complete the reflection activity.

Character Attributes Addressed During Unit

  • Cooperation
  • Collaboration
  • Respect for Others

Partnering With Fine Arts Teachers

Visual Arts Teacher:

  • Mask making – helping with the making of the mask

Summative Assessments

  • Pre/ Post Test
  • Project 1 Rubric
  • Project 2 Rubric (Task A, B, & C)

Appendix (See Additional Resources)

  • Pretest/Post Test

Credits

Sarah Weiss, Virginia Diederich, Abby Hernandez, Edited by Jessica Espinoza, Edited by Dr. Carla Cohen

Create-a-Critter

Description

In this project, students will explore animal attributes by becoming inventive and creating a one-of-a-kind critter using the art technique of “exquisite corpse”.

The synthesis of knowledge of animal classification in this visual way is both engaging and memorable. Students will write a description of their critter detailing the characteristics of each animal group they integrated into their design. Students will name their animal and present their animal to the class via a “Wanted” poster.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Create a critter that integrates three different animal parts
  • Create an original name for my critter based upon the attributes
  • Create a “Wanted” poster for my unique critter that describes its animal characteristics

Essential Questions

  • How can I apply my knowledge of animal classification to create a new critter using the “exquisite corpse” technique?

Curriculum Standards

S5L1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to group organisms using scientific classification procedures.

  1. Develop a model that illustrates how animals are sorted into groups (vertebrate and invertebrate) and how vertebrates are sorted into groups (fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal) using data from multiple sources.

ELACC5W3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

ELACC5W4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Standards 1–3 above.)

Arts Standards

VA5MC.1 Engages in the creative process to generate and visualize ideas.

VA5PR.1 Creates artworks based on personal experience and selected themes.

VA5PR.2 Understands and applies media, techniques, and processes of two-dimensional art processes (drawing, painting, printmaking, mixed-media) using tools and materials in a safe and appropriate manner to develop skills.

VA5PR.3 Understands and applies media, techniques, and processes of three-dimensional works of art (e.g., ceramics, sculpture, crafts, mixed- media) using tools and materials in a safe and appropriate manner to develop skills.

  1. Creates 3-D artwork that demonstrates a design concept: open or closed form, proportion, balance, color scheme, and movement.

Content Vocabulary

  • Vertebrate
  • Invertebrate
  • Mammal
  • Amphibian
  • Fish
  • Bird
  • Reptile
  • Insect
  • Classify
  • Group
  • Characteristics
  • Attribute
  • Similarities
  • Differences
  • Organism
  • Backbone
  • Warm-blooded
  • Cold-blooded
  • Reproduce

Arts Vocabulary

  • Surrealism: a 20th-century avant-garde movement in art and literature that sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind, for example by the irrational juxtaposition of images
  • Andre Breton: a Surrealist artist
  • Exquisite Corpse: a method by which a collection of words or images is collectively assembled (much like a collage)
  • Line: curves or marks that span a distance between two points
  • Texture: the feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface
  • Shape: the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture or material composition
  • Space: any area that an artist provides for a particular purpose, this includes the background, foreground and middleground, and the distances or around, between, and within things
  • Subject Matter: the topic dealt with or the subject represented in a work of art

Technology Integration

Formative Assessment

  • Class discussion
  • Teacher should check in with small groups as they work on their critter
  • Questioning

Summative Assessment

  • Project Rubric for the “Wanted Poster”

Materials

  • Drawing paper
  • Paper and pencil
  • Textured plates
  • Art sticks
  • Black extra fine Sharpie markers
  • Examples of exquisite corpse drawings

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

  • Show examples of exquisite corpse drawings (SEE DOWNLOADS)
  • Review characteristics/attributes of each vertebrate subgroup (bird, fish, mammal, amphibian, reptile)
  • Review procedures of working with groups and time constraints for the activity

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • Students will fold paper so that there are three vertical sections.
  • Each student will roll a die. They will draw the body part according to the number they roll:
    • 1= bird
    • 2 = fish
    • 3 = mammal
    • 4 = amphibian
    • 5 = reptile
    • 6 = invertebrate
  • After the first roll, student will draw the head of an example of that sub group. (e.g, if the teacher names mammal, the student could draw the head of a dog) on the top section.
  • After a specified amount of time, the student will fold the paper so that only the middle section is showing and pass to the next student. The students will again roll the die, and draw the torso of an animal that represents that sub group.
  • After a specified amount of time, the student will fold the paper so that only the bottom section is showing and pass to the next student. The students will again roll the die and draw the bottom (feet, tail) of an animal that represents that sub group.
  • The last student in the group will open the paper to reveal the three sections.

Part 2:

  • The student will take the created critter and develop a name for the critter using all three of the animals in the picture.
  • The student can now outline with Sharpies if desired, add color and an environmental background for the critter.
  • Each section of the critter should be finished using a different texture plate and art sticks (for example, the head could be one texture and one color, torso could be a different texture and color, etc.)
  • This paper can then be turned into a “wanted poster”. The student can write a description using some characteristics of all of the animal parts. (e.g. Be on the lookout for a missing “ligerdile” (lion, tiger, crocodile) that has escaped. It has fur, is warm blooded and might be near the eggs it laid. It was last seen…..)

Classroom Tips:

  • The teacher might want to have the student monitor each other so that they do not draw the same animal on the paper, even if they draw the same group.
  • Encourage students to consider placement and size of each body part; center each part; draw large enough to show texture and details, etc.
  • The teacher should emphasize that while the drawing does not have to be realistic, it should include enough detail to show characteristics of the vertebrate group.

Reflection Questions

  • From using the exquisite corpse technique, what did we learn about animal classification?
  • How realistic was this; does this sort of cross-breeding happen in real ecosystems? Can we brainstorm some examples of this?
  • What sort of adaptations could we envision these critters having? How would these help them survive in their ecosystem?

Differentiation

Below Grade Level: Students will be provided with different pictures of invertebrates and vertebrates cut up into 3 sections (The head, torso, and legs). They will create a creature by gluing down the parts of the pictures. Student will roll a dice. They will paste down the body parts according to the number they roll:

  • 1= bird
  • 2 = fish
  • 3 = mammal
  • 4 = amphibian
  • 5 = reptile
  • 6 = invertebrate

EL Students:

Writing Accommodations:

ELP Level 1-2: Label critter’s characteristics directly on the poster using a word bank provided by the teacher. Picture and first language support should be used as needed for unknown vocabulary.

ELP Level 3-4: Students may type their critter descriptions in OneNote using the “Dictate” feature. Students can then copy the description to their poster. (OneNote>Learning Tools Add-in>Dictate)

ELP Level 5-6: Write a longer description including how their critter’s characteristics contribute to their ideal habitat.

Additional Resources

Appendix

  • Rubric for “Wanted” poster

Credits

Playing with Animals

Description

In this project, students will write a fictional play around the premise of a zookeeper trying to solve the problem of “the zoo just received several new animals and no one knows where each animal belongs”. The play will incorporate science content that will demonstrate student knowledge of animal classification. Students will also create 3-D masks to represent the animals in their play. To culminate this project, students will dramatize their play to an audience in order to express the inner workings of the animal classification system.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Write a play that illustrates how animals are sorted into groups: invertebrates, vertebrates and subgroups (mammals, fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians)
  • Create a 3-D animal mask that demonstrates multiple design concepts
  • Dramatize a play by developing, communicating, and sustaining a role within the script

Essential Questions

  • How can I develop a play that illustrates how animals are sorted into groups?
  • How can I create a visual artwork that clearly articulates the characteristics of vertebrates?
  • How can dramatizing a play help me to communicate and model scientific concepts?

Curriculum Standards

S5L1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to group organisms using scientific classification procedures.

  1. Develop a model that illustrates how animals are sorted into groups (vertebrate and invertebrate) and how vertebrates are sorted into groups (fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal) using data from multiple sources.

ELACC5W3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

ELACC5W4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Standards 1–3 above.)

ELAGSE5SL1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

Arts Standards

TAES5.2 Developing scripts through improvisation and other theatrical methods

  1. Uses a playwriting process (e.g., pre-write/pre-play; prepare to write/plan dramatization; write; dramatize; reflect and edit; re-write/play; publish/perform)
  2. Applies dramatic elements such as plot, point of view conflict, resolution, and significant events, in creating scripts
  3. Creates an organizing structure appropriate for purpose, audience and context

TAES5.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments

  1. Uses vocal elements such as inflection, pitch, and volume, to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of a character
  2. Uses body and stage movement to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of a character
  3. Uses imagination to make artistic choices in portraying characters
  4. Collaborates with an ensemble to create theatre
  5. Dramatizes literature and original scripts through various dramatic forms such as pantomime, process drama, puppetry, improvisation, plays, and readers’ theatre

Content Vocabulary

  • Vertebrate
  • Invertebrate
  • Mammal
  • Amphibian
  • Fish
  • Bird
  • Reptile
  • Insect
  • Classify
  • Group
  • Characteristics
  • Attribute
  • Similarities
  • Differences
  • Organism
  • Backbone
  • Warm-blooded
  • Cold-blooded
  • Reproduce

Arts Vocabulary

Vistual Art

  • Henri Rousseau: French post-impressionist painter in the Primitive manner. His subject matter was often ecosystems.
  • Three Dimensional: having or appearing to have length, breadth, and depth
  • Media: tools and materials used to create the art
  • Relief Sculpture: a technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material
  • Armature: skeleton for a sculpture
  • Subject Matter: things represented in artwork
  • Texture: surface quality of an object
  • Balance: Symmetrical equal portions along an axis

Theatre

  • Theater: play writing and performance
  • Character: specified role
  • Collaboration: people working together
  • Dialogue: conversation between characters
  • Playwright: person who writes a play
  • Setting: place of action
  • Concentration: ability to stay “in character”
  • Ensemble: all parts taken together
  • Stage blocking: where each character moves onstage

Technology Integration

The following technology integrations are meant to either replace the live play performance or to be used as an extension to the project. These are both green screen video presentation options.

Formative Assessment

  • Teacher Timeline Checklist (SEE DOWNLOADS)
  • Checking in with students as they are playwriting and creating their masks
  • Questioning during activities

Summative Assessment

  • Project 2 Rubric (SEE DOWNLOAD)
  • Task A; Play writing
  • Task B: Mask
  • Task C: Performance

Materials

Mask-making:

  • Rigid Wrap (plaster mesh)
  • small pans (for water for mesh wrap)
  • large sponge or cloth to wipe hands on while working
  • white face mask
  • newspaper or paper towel, masking tape (for armature)
  • tissue paper
  • feathers
  • faux animal fur sheets(or a bolt)
  • mesh netting
  • metallic paper(fish scales)
  • metallic paint(glossy finish to amphibian)
  • glue
  • acrylic paint

Play Performance:

  • Zookeeper hat

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

  • Teacher will lead students in a “Story Chain” activity with pantomime when applicable.
  • This activity may work best with groups no larger than 6-7. (It is preferred that these groups be the same groups students will work in for the remainder of the project)
  • The “Story Chain” activity begins with a one line prompt. This can come from the teacher or from a student. An example could be, “Pat walks into a forest.”
  • Another student will add the next ONE sentence detail to the story, making sure to remain in 3rd person, as well as relate to the details mentioned before. For example, “Pat walks into a forest. Pat hears birds chirping.” This is not a good example, “Pat walks into a forest. Pat sees a dolphin jumping out of the ocean.” This is not a good example because you would not see a dolphin in the middle of a forest.
  • As a student shares their one sentence detail, they will pantomime the verb(s) within the sentence.
  • The activity continues with each student in the group adding a new detail to the story, making sure to remain in 3rd person, as well as relate to the details previously mentioned.
  • The goal of this activity is to get students listening to each other (they will have to do this when they collaboratively write their play), making ideas connect (their individual animal descriptions/details must connect within their play), and moving in ways related to what they are saying (in the play they will have to perform in the role they have chosen).
  • Disclaimer: Students can take the story in any direction they like; however, they just need to make sure the details lead them there. For instance, “Pat walks into a forest. Pat hears birds chirping. Now Pat is walking on the planet Pluto.” It is okay for Pat to end up on Pluto, the students just need to provide the details of how Pat gets there.

Main Activity

Part 1:
Writing the Play

  • If not done already from the activating activity, the teacher will place students into groups of 6-7 (group of 7 will have an added animal group of invertebrate).
  • Teacher will preview Theater (play writing) vocabulary with class (character, collaboration, dialogue, playwright, setting)
  • Students will pick roles: zoo keeper (narrator), mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish (optional invertebrate).
  • Each group will compose a rough draft of their play. To begin, each student within the group will write at least 4 lines for the play that includes at least three characteristics of the vertebrate sub group they chose to portray (i.e., mammal, bird, etc.). The zookeeper should write questions to ask each “animal” character in order to help classify each animal. The zookeeper will need to work closely with each animal to ensure the zookeeper’s questions are answered by each animal. The zookeeper needs to be sure to “assign” each animal to a particular group in the zoo (which will be either the mammal group, bird group, reptile group, etc.)
  • The zookeeper can really take on a fun role by including the audience in the dialogue of the play. For instance, as the zookeeper discovers attributes of each animal he/she can ask the audience “yes or no” questions like “Hmmm, this animal has feathers. Does it belong in the amphibian group? etc.)
  • As a group, students will decide the order the characters will appear and compose the final script.
  • Teacher will formatively assess students during the writing process using the attached “Teacher Checklist” to ensure students remain on task. At the completion of the play writing, the teacher will use “Task A” rubric to summatively assess the written portion of the play.

Part 2:
Constructing the Mask
*Explore option of collaborating with art teacher to support time constraints; i.e., the art teacher has students create the plaster mask base in art class.

  • The teacher will briefly introduce the history, use, terminology and design concepts of masks being taught within this lesson (Relief sculpture, armature, balance) by viewing the following websites: www.thatartistwoman.org and www.hosmerart.blogspot.com. 5th grade plaster masks
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1yI6vxANnHg video on making a plaster mask on face form
  • Students will design a mask of their selected animal using the PDF paper template attached. Students will plan the color, shape, texture, and armature(s) (extensions) of the mask.
  • At this point, hopefully the teacher is able to get students to construct the plaster mask within art class. If not, the teacher will need to instruct students on the plaster mask process.

Plaster Mask Process (using Rigid Wrap material)

  • Give each student a plastic mask template.
  • show youtube video on using plaster strips
  • Cut the Rigid Wrap into strips (approx.. 2” wide, length is dependent on style of mask); smaller pieces for certain areas.
  • Students can build the armature off the base mask to create features such as horns, fins, ears, snouts, etc. using newspaper, paper towels and masking tape
  • Once the form has been built, students may begin the plaster process.
  • Dip the Rigid Wrap strip into warm water until it begins to soften and then place on the mask form.
  • Smooth with finger.
  • Continue to layer the strips and overlap until the mask form has been covered.
  • Allow to dry overnight.

Part 3:

  • After the plaster masks are dry, students will use paint, glue, and texture materials to decorate mask. Students will include appropriate media for their selected animal (faux fur for mammal, mesh netting for reptile or fish, feathers for bird, metallic paper or paint for amphibian).
  • Teacher will formatively assess during the process of Day 2 and 3 using the “Teacher Checklist” attached and will also summatively assess using the “Task B” rubric attached.

Part 4: Dramatizing the Play

  • On day 4, each group will need to rehearse its play, focusing on individual volume, tone, and character concentration. Groups will also need to focus on the ensemble and stage blocking of each character to ensure group collaboration.

Part 5:

  • Each group will dramatize the play for an audience.
  • Teacher will summatively assess using the attached “Task C” rubric.

Classroom Tips:

  • Allow adequate time for the creative process. (The unit duration is 3-5 days; however, portions of the project could be left out or extended as the teacher sees fit.)
  • On the plaster mask creating day, prepare the classroom for easy clean up by covering tables and desks with butcher paper or newspaper. Have towels available for spills and for students to wipe hands at the conclusion of activity.
  • On the play dramatization day, create a “stage” area at the front of the classroom to provide students a designated area to perform. It is suggested to also create an area for the audience.

Reflection Questions

  • How did the dramatization help you model the classification of animals?
  • How did creating the animal mask help you understand the characteristics/attributes of your animal group?
  • How did writing your character’s role in the group’s play help you communicate the characteristics/attributes of your animal group?
  • Is there anything about your group’s project you would like to change in order to make better?
  • Name 1 “glow” and 1 “grow” for your personal contribution to your group’s performance.

Differentiation

Below Grade Level: Provide students with an example of an animal with the characteristics of both invertebrates and vertebrates. Direct students to act out each animal sound. Limit the audience size for students reluctant to perform for a large group.

Above Grade Level: Provide students with the opportunity to include animal adaptation in the storyline of their script. Also let them consider writing an epilogue to their play. This would include writing about what happens to the characters “after” the story is resolved.

Additional Resources

  • “Goodnight Gorilla” by Peggy Rathmann (could also be used as an activating activity)
  • www.thatartistwoman.org – plaster masks
  • www.hosmerart.blogspot.com – plaster masks 5th grade
  • Classes could pair with 1st grade classes to perform plays. At the conclusion of performances, 5th grade students can pair with 1st grade students to complete reflection questions.
  • For an extension of this particular project, technology can be incorporated in many ways.  One way that technology can be incorporated is by using the apps of Dolnk, or Touchcast. These apps are green screen apps that the students can use to create and produce backgrounds if they chose not to perform the play production in a live setting.  The students will record using an iPad or mobile device and the production can then be played back for other students at a later time.

Appendix

  • Rubric for this project
  • Mask Template
  • Teacher Checklist

Credits

Grade 5: Classy Classification of Animals

Additional Resources

Books

  • Goodnight Gorilla by Peggy Rathmann

Websites
The teacher will play a song about animal classification found on YouTube.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ya-7JsIna2E (the actual song begins at 2:10; however, there is relative information in the first two minutes)

Quavermusic.com – for music

Exquisite Corpse - http://www.lacma.org/sites/default/files/DrawingLessonPlans.pdf

Animal masks - www.thatartistwoman.org

Animal masks - www.hosmerart.blogspot.com

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Grade 5:
Cells Celebrate!

CELLS CELEBRATE!

Grade 5: Cells Celebrate!

Unit Description

Students will use theater, music, movement and the visual arts to explore plant and animal cells. The unit’s projects will lead students to making discoveries about the different cells they examine and the inner relationships of the organelles. Students will also strengthen their informational and opinion writing skills through the projects in this Cells Celebrate!

Unit Essential Question

How can analyzing the relationships of cell organelles help us to understand living things?

Real World Context

We study and analyze cells because they are the basis for life. We are all made up of cells and it is important that we understand the function of all of the organelles present in cells so we know how cells work. Scientists and doctors study cells to understand things like cancer and diseases. They work to detect when a cell looks abnormal and what may have caused it to be abnormal. Understanding the foundational knowledge of a cell leads us to understanding the inner workings of biology.

Cross-Cutting Interdisciplinary Concepts

Relationships
Comparison (Compare and Contrast)
Parts of a Whole

Projects

Project 1: Do You See What I See?
The purpose of this project is to introduce students to the tools used to observe cells. Students will investigate the appearance of various cells using a microscope. Students will explore how the parts of a small organism work together and compose the parts of a whole. This lesson suggests also collaborating with the art teacher to take a closer look at students’ microscope sketchings and creating a large work of art that amplifies the organelles that make up a cell.

Project 2: Music and Movement in the Plant Cell
This lesson introduces the various organelles in a plant cell (chloroplast, cytoplasm, cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus). Students create riddles for the various organelles. Students then explore applying rhythms and movements to the organelles that support the function.

Project 3: Using Tableau Become a Plant Cell
Students will integrate their knowledge of previously taught organelles in a plant cell with theater arts. Students will use the different organelles: chloroplast, cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus to construct tableaux of plant cells. They will then dramatize the organelles by understanding their function in the cell and their relationship with the other organelles.

Project 4: Cell Rap
This project integrates music and visual arts into students’ study of both plant and animal cells. In this project, students will compare and contrast the organelles in both an animal cell and plant cell. Students will create a rap that shows their understanding of how the individual organelles function in both types of cell.

Project 5: Cell Debate
Students will integrate theater and explore the roles of the organelles in both plant and animal cells. This project will require students to role-play in the various organelle roles and then write an informational opinion piece about why their organelle is the most crucial cell part. Students will rehearse and perform in a cell organelle debate where they will defend their arguments. Students will work as a team to debate a common goal together.

Project 6: 3D Cell Models
Students will create a three-dimensional sculpture of an animal or plant cell. They will use various objects and mixed media to work as a group and construct a model. Students will then explore what they notice when they examine a cell from a 3D lens.

Standards

Curriculum Standards

S5P1. Students will verify that an object is the sum of its parts

  1. Investigate how common items have parts that are too small to be seen without magnification

S5L3. Students will diagram and label parts of various cells

  1. Use magnifiers such as microscopes or hand lenses to observe cells and their structure
  2. Identify parts of a plant cell (membrane, wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, chloroplasts) and of an animal cell (membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus) and determine the function of the parts

ELAGSE5W1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons

  1. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose
  2. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details
  3. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically)
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented

ELAGSE5W2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly

  1. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic
  2. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic

Arts Standards

VA5PR.1 Creates artworks based on personal experience and selected themes

VA5PR.1.e Creates artworks from direct observation

VA5PR.2

  1. Creates artworks with a variety of media
  2. Draws images from careful observation

VA5PR.3 Understands and applies media, techniques, and processes of 3 dimensional works of art using tools and materials in a safe and appropriate manner to develop skills

VA5PR.4 Plans and participates in appropriate exhibitions of artworks.

D5FD.4 Understands and applies music concepts to dance

  1. Exhibits and creates variety in movement qualities in response to a variety of musical selections and instruments
  2. Demonstrates musicality while performing dance phrases

D5CO.4: Demonstrates an understanding of dance as it relates to other areas of knowledge

TAES5.2 Developing scripts through improvisation and other theatrical methods

TAES5.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments

TAES5.7 Integrating various art forms, other content areas, and life experiences, to create theater

M5GM.1 Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music

M5GM.4 Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments

M5GM.5 Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines

M5GM.8 Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts

Character Education

Components

In this unit there are many opportunities for the class to share an arts integrated project for another 5th grade class audience, particularly the 3D Cell Models and the Cell Debate projects. The 3D Cell Models could be set out with the students serving as tour guides. Another class could visit each exhibit and ask questions to the “cell experts.” The Cell Debate could easily be a performance where another class could video record and analyze the presentation. Character Education is truly integrated when opportunities are created for students to teach other students. Also character education opportunities are created when students step into the role not only as performers but also as audience/ critics who analyze closely what they see to provide peer feedback.

Attributes

Respect

  • For one another
  • For the environment

Parts of a Whole

  • Cooperate/ Working in groups
  • Compromise/ Negotiation skills
  • Interdependence

Summative Assessment Tools

  • Written Reflections (for each project)
  • Field of View Handout
  • Students are directed to select one of the one of the images they saw with the microscope and create a field of view drawing representing what they observed after viewing various cells.
  • Cell Function riddle- Students create and display their own riddle to be shared with the class
  • Informational Writing Piece:
  • Students will write a monologue from the viewpoint of their cell organelle “character”. Informational Cell Monologue Rubric is used to assess writing
  • Cell Rap Rubric- Completion and performance of musical rap
  • Word Art- students create word art that takes the science vocabulary and through design, illustrates the word meaning
  • Student Debate Self-Assessment:
  • Students will rate themselves on their recorded video debate after it is watched after the debate
  • Create different monologues for organelles in both plant and animal cells
  • 3D Cell Model Self-Assessment Checklist- Completion of a model of a cell with organelles correctly labeled

Partnering with Fine Arts Teachers

Music Specialist:

  • Additional support in Project 4: Cell Rap
  • Assist in incorporating music note counts with specific movements for various cell organelles

Visual Arts Specialist:

  • Additional support in Project 1: Do You See What I See
  • Assist with visual arts project magnifying cells in the form of mixed media
  • Assist with providing ideas for media
  • Additional support in Project 6: 3-D Cell Models
  • Assist with providing ideas for materials and differentiation in 3-D cell model presentation

Appendix (See Additional Resources)

  • PreTest

Credits

U.S. Department of Education
Arts in Education--Model Development and Dissemination Grants Program
Cherokee County (GA) School District and ArtsNow, Inc.
Ideas contributed and edited by:
Taylor Stewart, Danny Arnett, Jessica Espinoza, Richard Benjamin Ph.D., Michele McClelland, Mary Ellen Johnson, Jane Gill

Do You See What I See?

Science and Visual Arts

Description

The purpose of this project is to introduce students to the tools used to observe cells. Students will investigate the appearance of various cells using a microscope. Students will explore how the parts of a small organism work together and compose the parts of a whole. This lesson suggests also collaborating with the art teacher to take a closer look at students’ microscope sketchings and creating a large work of art that amplifies the organelles that make up a cell.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Use a microscope or hand lens to verify that organisms are made up of cells
  • Interpret what I see in the microscope by sketching

Essential Questions

  • How does the concept “Parts of a Whole” relate to understanding organisms?
  • What does it mean to magnify?
  • What do we see when we take a closer look?

Curriculum Standards

S5P1. Students will verify that an object is the sum of its parts

  1. Investigate how common items have parts that are too small to be seen without magnification

S5L3. Students will diagram and label parts of various cells

  1. Use magnifiers such as microscopes or hand lenses to observe cells and their structure
  2. Identify parts of a plant cell (membrane, wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, chloroplasts) and of an animal cell (membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus) and determine the function of the parts

Arts Standards

VA5PR.1.e Creates artworks from direct observation

VA5PR.2

  1. Creates artworks with a variety of media
  2. Draws images from careful observation

Content Vocabulary

  • Animal
  • Chloroplasts
  • Cytoplasm
  • Magnifier
  • Membrane
  • Microscope
  • Multi-celled
  • Nucleus
  • Plant
  • Single-celled
  • Wall

Arts Vocabulary

  • Balance
  • Emphasis
  • Media
  • Perspective

Technology Integration

Computer, internet, projector, microscopes, viewers, and prepared slides of various cells: plant and animal parts

Formative Assessment

  • Student sketches created after rotating through the microscope stations and observing the various slides of different cells
  • Teacher-led questioning throughout the station rotation

Summative Assessment

  • Field of View Handout (see Downloads) Students are to select one of the images they saw with the microscope and create a field of view drawing representing what they observed after viewing various cells.
  • Written Reflection (see Downloads)

Materials

Microscopes, slide viewers, prepared slides of various cells, drawing paper with circular “Field of View,” colored pencils, crayons *Various types of cell slides can be purchased at: www.carolina.com, keyword “cell slides”

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

Questions used to explore the cell image:

  • What media is used in the painting?
  • How is the artist able to create perspective?
  • What does the artist emphasize?
  • What kind of balance is apparent in the painting (symmetrical, asymmetrical, radial)?
  • Class will discuss the visual aspects of cell organelles, such as cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, chloroplasts, shape, and relative size.

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • Teacher will model how to use the microscope with various slides. The teacher will review the parts of a microscope and proper ways to use it, by showing how to adjust focus, place slides on the stage, and adjust slides.
  • Students rotate through 5 centers viewing slides of various cells or organism parts. Students will make a rough draft of the image seen including size, organelles, and hypothesize what type of cell they see in each.
  • Students will then choose one of the cells they viewed and create a detailed drawing of what they saw in their microscope field of view.

Part 2:

  • Teacher will collaborate with the visual arts teacher to direct students to use their cell drawings in groups to collaboratively create a large painting representation of the cell and all of its parts.

Materials: Circular pieces of canvas or thick paper, mixed media (suggestions on media include acrylic or tempera paint), paint brushes, cups, water and pallet for mixing colors

Reflection Strategies

Students will partner up with one another to reflect on what they saw. Students will swap drawings with their partner and hypothesize what the image represents. They will then take turns explaining to their partner what their drawing represents.

Teacher will allow students reflection time using the following prompts that students can either discuss or provide feedback using the Written Reflection Form (see Downloads).

Specific reflection questions for class discussion:

  • When you drew your sketch, how did the microscope help you?
  • Why is perspective important when turning your cell into a piece of art?
  • How is the artistic process of creating a piece of art similar to the scientific process of examining a specimen?
  • Tell me about your cell organelles. How did you know this was the cell wall? Cell membrane? Nucleus? Chloroplasts?
  • What do you notice about the shapes of these organelles?
  • Do you notice any similarities between the job of a scientist and the job of a visual artist?

Differentiation

Below Grade Level:

  • Students will view prepared slides online to accommodate individual differences as needed. Students will be in heterogeneous groups so peer tutoring will be available for students who need further assistance. Also, teacher will be available to assist students as needed.

Above Grade Level:

  • Students create detailed drawings of two different specimens and compare and contrast the two specimens. Students will write about their observations.

EL Students:

  • Throughout this lesson, pair EL students with high achieving students. They will work together instead of individually. The pair will continually converse with one another. This allows for reinforcement of the science vocabulary terms, as well as extended discussions to take place. Furthermore this partnership will assist in a deeper understanding of the concepts being taught.

Small Group Instruction

Students will rotate through 5 stations set up with microscopes or slide viewers to observe prepared slides of various cells. Students will choose one of the cells they viewed to illustrate on their “microscope field of view” sheets.

Appendix (See Downloads)

  • Field of View handout
  • Written Reflection Sheet Project 1

Credits

Music and Movement in the Plant Cell

Science and Visual Arts

Description

This lesson introduces the various organelles in a plant cell (chloroplast, cytoplasm, cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus). Students create riddles for the various organelles. Students then explore applying rhythms and movements to the organelles that support the function.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Identify and label the various parts of a plant cell
  • Interpret the function of the different organelles
  • Use movement and rhythm to help me learn the different functions of each organelle in a plant cell

Essential Questions

  • What are the functions of the various plant cell organelles?
  • How can I use movement and music to help me learn the different functions of each plant organelle?

Curriculum Standards

S5L3. Students will diagram and label parts of various cells

  1. Use magnifiers such as microscopes or hand lenses to observe cells and their structure
  2. Identify parts of a plant cell (membrane, wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, chloroplasts) and of an animal cell (membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus) and determine the function of the parts

S5P1. Students will verify that an object is the sum of its parts

  1. Investigate how common items have parts that are too small to be seen without magnification

Arts Standards

M5GM.8 Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts

D5FD.4 Understands and applies music concepts to dance

  1. Exhibits and creates variety in movement qualities in response to a variety of musical selections and instruments
  2. Demonstrates musicality while performing dance phrases

D5CO.4: Demonstrates an understanding of dance as it relates to other areas of knowledge

Content Vocabulary

  • Cell membrane
  • Cell wall
  • Chloroplast
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus

Arts Vocabulary

  • Non-locomotor movement
  • Note values (music class)
  • Tempo

Technology Integration

Song: Cells by They Might Be Giants (Click to watch video)

Formative Assessment

  • Teacher’s anecdotal notes during the Choral Movement/Rhythm Responses

Summative Assessment

  • Cell Function Riddle: Students create and display their own riddle to be shared with the class.
  • Written Reflection (see Downloads)

Materials

“Cell Function Riddles,” Rubric (see Downloads)

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

  • Cell Diagram will be on board (labeled) and the song Cells by They Might Be Giants can be found here
  • Teacher will ask students to talk in small groups about what they think each part’s function is based on the labeled cell diagram.
  • Teacher will keep student-led list for each cell organelle.

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • Review the quarter note, eighth note, and half note. Demonstrate how quarter notes can be tapped or clapped to the syllables in each word. Go through all of the organelles and apply rhythms to them.
  • After the 5 plant cell organelles are taught, the teacher will lead the students in developing motions for each of the cell organelles. (Example: NUCLEUS = 3 quarter note pats (syllables) on the top of the head.) The dance movements should reflect the function of the cell to help with associating the function with the movement. For instance, the “Nucleus” is the boss of the cell. Encourage students to create a movement that they may see a boss character do.

Part 2:

  • After the students have developed a class list of motions, students will get into small groups and be given an organelle. Each small group is asked to create a riddle for the organelle assigned.

Part 3:

  • Lead the class in reviewing the choreography and rhythm assigned to each organelle.
  • Teacher demonstrates this by modeling 5 different teacher-made riddles as the class responds. (Refer to “Cell Function Riddles” in Downloads.)

Part 4:

  • Each small group is asked to go to the front of the class and read their riddle.
  • The class will then try to guess the organelle by using the motion assigned for that specific organelle.

Part 5:

  • Students will use a piece of colored construction paper to write their riddles on.
  • They will fold the sheet in half, write the riddle on the front cover, then write the answer under the flap.
  • Take the student-created riddles and showcase them somewhere specific in the classroom.
  • Create an interactive display where the students can go to read the riddles and then flip display to view the riddle’s answer and the organelle.

Reflection Strategies

Teacher will allow students reflection time using the following prompts that students can either discuss or provide feedback using the Written Reflection Form (see Downloads).

Specific reflection questions for class discussion:

  • What were the artistic choices I made? Why did I pick the specific movement and rhythm for my organelle?
  • Why is it important to know the function of each plant cell organelle?
  • Think back on the choreography created by you and your classmates. Describe the role of the below organelles:
    • nucleus
    • cell membrane
    • cell wall
    • cytoplasm
    • chloroplasts

Differentiation

Below Grade Level:

  • Students may be provided with a list of the names of individual organelles and randomized list of functions for visual matching ability.

Above Grade Level:

  • Individual subgroups of students can create different motions for the various functions of the organelles, instead of sharing in a classroom set of dance motions and musical beats.
  • Students write their own riddles for the specific functions of all of the organelles instead of just the one assigned to their group.

EL Students:

  • Consider going over the science vocabulary words ahead of time using colorful diagrams and small group discussions. Do this ahead of time so students grow more familiar with the words.

Small Group Instruction

Students will rotate through 5 stations set up with microscopes or slide viewers to observe prepared slides of various cells. Students will choose one of the cells they viewed to illustrate on their “microscope field of view” sheets.

Appendix (See Downloads)

  • Cell Function Riddles
  • Written Reflection Sheet Project 2

Credits

Using Tableau to Become a Plant Cell

Science and Theater

Description

Students will integrate their knowledge of previously taught organelles in a plant cell with theater arts. Students will use the different organelles: chloroplast, cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus to construct tableaux of plant cells. They will then dramatize the organelles by understanding their function in the cell and their relationship with the other organelles.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Identify the various parts and functions of a plant and animal cell
  • Use theatrical arts (tableaux) to demonstrate my understanding of the organelles, their function, and their relationship with one another

Essential Questions

  • What are the functions of the various plant cell organelles?
  • How can I use tableaux to analyze the functions of the organelles in a plant cell?

Curriculum Standards

S5L3. Students will diagram and label parts of various cells

  1. Use magnifiers such as microscopes or hand lenses to observe cells and their structure
  2. Identify parts of a plant cell (membrane, wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, chloroplasts) and of an animal cell (membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus) and determine the function of the parts

S5P1. Students will verify that an object is the sum of its parts

  1. Investigate how common items have parts that are too small to be seen without magnification

Arts Standards

TAES5.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments

TAES5.7 Integrating various art forms, other content areas, and life experiences, to create theater

Content Vocabulary

  • Cell membrane
  • Cell wall
  • Chloroplast
  • Cytoplasm
  • Function
  • Nucleus
  • Structure

Arts Vocabulary

  • Tableau
  • Principles of tableau:
    1. Levels
    2. Facial expression
    3. Relationships between characters
    4. Audience visibility

Formative Assessment

  • Teacher can monitor students through anecdotal notes for understanding of tableau elements, plant cell organelle concept understanding, and teamwork.

Questions to ask after tableaux are created:

  1. Why did you choose that body level for your organelle?
  2. Why did you choose that facial expression?
  3. What is the relationship that your organelle had with the other organelles?

Summative Assessment

  • Informational Writing Piece: Students will write a monologue from the viewpoint of their cell organelle “character.” Informational Cell Monologue Rubric (see Downloads)
  • Written Reflection (see Downloads)

Materials

Index cards with plant cell organelles listed individually (chloroplast, cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus), Informational Cell Monologue Rubric (see Downloads)

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

  • Begin this project by letting students know that “tableau” means “frozen picture.”
  • Explain to students that today we will use our bodies to create frozen pictures.
  • Begin by having students stand up and create the following tableaux:
  • 102 year old grandparent crossing the street
  • Baseball player focusing on hitting the ball
  • A chef that dropped a pizza

*Introduce the “principles of tableau” and discuss how creating a strong tableau requires a clear body level (low, mid, high) and big facial expressions.

  • Direct students to get into small groups (3-5 students) so we can now explore creating relationships.
  • Direct students to create a tableau of:
    1. A family portrait
    2. A teacher and students in class
    3. A castle (using just their bodies)

*Draw attention to how creating a strong tableau requires establishing clear relationships and making sure the audience can see our faces.

Classroom Tips: When cueing students to create a tableau as a group, give them a count down. Ex: “Okay class, get into your tableau on a 3, 2, 1, FREEZE!”

Teacher will describe to students that in today’s lesson, they will create a tableau. Teacher will then hand out individual index cards with the plant cell organelle names listed to students. (Teacher might differentiate lower level cards—easier organelles/functions—to lower level students).

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • Teacher will list each specific organelle on the board for students to make sure that it is in the tableau that they are going to create.

Part 2:

  • Teacher will review the tableau elements. (Reminder to students about level, audience awareness, facial expression, and relationships.)
  • Teacher will quickly review the functions of each organelle.
  • Students will have 1 minute to strike their organelle tableau. (Example: Nucleus could be shown by holding the head for the “brain.”)
  • Teacher will then walk around the classroom and tap individual students on the shoulder. The student that is tapped must then be able to reply with a 1 sentence statement regarding the function of their organelle.

Part 3:

  • After the tableau, students will then be directed in writing an informational narrative from the point of view of their cell organelle. The student must take what they know as the function of that organelle and produce an informational monologue, which will eventually be presented to the class.
  • Students must write from the viewpoint of that character and be sure to include all applicable content area vocabulary relevant to their organelle. Students will be graded using the Informational Writing Rubric (see Downloads).
  • Students will then share their cell organelle monologue with the class. Other classroom students may provide constructive feedback on theatrical delivery (diction, facial expression, tone, volume, pitch, etc.) using theater arts vocabulary.

Reflection Strategies

Writing Reflection (see Downloads)

  1. How did using tableau help me understand the plant cell and the roles of the organelles?
  2. My facial expression in the tableau was ________________. I made this choice because…

Differentiation

Option:

  • Group students for tableaux in heterogeneous groups, combining below level/EL/above grade level students together for better explanation/mastery of content.

Below Grade Level/EL Students:

  • Create a whole-class tableau to model the various elements of a tableau before having the students break into small groups and performing their own individual tableau.

Above Grade Level:

  • Have the students create a sketch of their tableau to show the relationship and connection/location between each cell organelle and explain its specific function. On the sketch, students must label the organelles and describe the function of each organelle in 4 words or less (for each organelle).

Appendix (See Downloads)

  • Informational Cell Monologue Rubric
  • Tableau Self Assessment
  • Written Reflection Sheet Project 3

Credits

Cell Rap

Science and Music

Description

This project integrates music and visual arts into students’ study of both plant and animal cells. In this project students will compare and contrast the organelles in both an animal cell and plant cell. Students will create a rap that shows their understanding of how the individual organelles function in both types of cell.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Identify the various organelles in an animal cell and plant cell
  • Compare and contrast animal and plant cells
  • Explain the function of the various organelles
  • Label the various organelles in cells
  • Create a musical rap that demonstrates my understanding of the science concept

Essential Questions

  • What are the functions of the various animal and plant cell organelles?
  • How can music be used to create connections between the two types of cells?

Curriculum Standards

S5P1. Students will verify that an object is the sum of its parts

S5L3. Students will diagram and label parts of various cells (plant, animal, single-celled, multi-celled)

Arts Standards

M5GM.1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music

M5GM.4. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments

M5GM.5. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines

M5GM.8. Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts

Content Vocabulary

  • Animal cell
  • Cell membrane
  • Chloroplasts
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus
  • Plant cell
  • Structure

Arts Vocabulary

  • Articulation
  • Beat
  • Crescendo
  • Decrescendo
  • Form
  • Legato
  • Melody

Technology Integration

The various apps can be used when developing student raps:

  • “Metronome” App can be used to help students find a steady beat for the rap
  • “Rapchat” App can record and share freestyle raps over beats
  • “Music Maker Jam” App can be used to create, sing and record songs

Formative Assessment

  • Cell Rap Writing/Group Work: Teacher Observation of students working in collaborative groups on rap that compares and contrasts animal and plant cells

Summative Assessment

  • Cell Rap Rubric: Completion and performance of musical rap
  • Word Art: Students create word art that takes the science vocabulary and, through design, illustrates the word meaning
  • Written Reflection (see Downloads)

Materials

Construction paper/poster board, coloring/art materials, computer (if needed for differentiation)

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

  • Teacher will lead students in a 4 corner review game to review the organelles of a cell.
  • Teacher will label 3 corners of the room with:
    *NUCLEUS *CYTOPLASM
    *CELL MEMBRANE *CELL WALL
  • Teacher will then call out the function of the various organelles and the students must move to the appropriate corner of the room to match the function and organelle.

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • Place students in small groups.
  • Assign half of the groups to create a 10-line rap about the function of each organelle (cytoplasm, nucleus, and cell membrane) in an animal cell.
  • Assign the other half of the groups to create a rap for a plant cell.
  • Option: Allow students time to work with the various apps listed above and try recording a version of their rap with background beats incorporated.
  • Small groups share their Cell Raps.

Part 2:

  • The teacher will ask the students to compare and contrast the two cells based on what we learned from our raps. (Why does the plant cell have organelles that the animal cell does not include?)
  • Together as a class, begin a 5-line rap together that compares and contrasts the 2 types of cells.
  • Students get back in groups and independently finish the last 5 lines of the compare/contrast rap.
  • Groups share their different endings.

Part 3:

  • Students work collaboratively in groups to create Word Art for all of the organelles in the cell they were exploring.
  • The students must use the properties of each organelle and the function to best illustrate the vocabulary word. (Example: Cytoplasm might be “oozing” and use thick shaped letters and have pieces inside—representative of it’s function and physical properties).

Reflection Strategies

Written Reflection Questions (see Downloads)

Reflection Questions:

  1. How would I rate myself on the understanding of the differences between plant and animal cells and their organelles?
  2. How does music and writing a song help me understand the concept of the differences between plant and animal cells?

Differentiation

Below Grade Level:

  • These groups of students can work with the entire class to create the 10-line rap song, and focus more on their performance and mastery of the content. Consider splitting the class into 2 groups and having a Rap Battle.

Above Grade Level:

  • These groups of students can create the entire rap by themselves, instead of working with the entire class.

EL Students:

  • Instead of working in homogeneous groups to create the last 5 lines of the rap, the teacher would pair an EL student with a higher fluency/language student to work together in a one-on-one collaborative pair.

Small Group Instruction

Students will rotate through 5 stations set up with microscopes or slide viewers to observe prepared slides of various cells. Students will choose one of the cells they viewed to illustrate on their “microscope field of view” sheets.

Appendix (See Downloads)

  • Written Reflection Sheet Project 4
  • Cell Rap Rubric

Credits

Cell Debate

Science and English Language Arts and Theater

Description

Students will integrate theater and explore the roles of the organelles in both plant and animal cells. This project will require students to role-play in the various organelle roles and then write an informational opinion piece about why their organelle is the most crucial cell part. Students will rehearse and perform in a cell organelle debate where they will defend their arguments. Students will work as a team to debate a common goal together.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Use informational writing to share my knowledge of my scientific discoveries
  • Use opinion writing to express my viewpoint about a certain topic
  • Use theatrical techniques to show my overall learning process

Essential Questions

  • How can we use drama to compare and contrast animal and plant cell organelles?
  • How can we use informational and opinion writing to express our scientific discoveries?
  • What are the functions of the various plant and animal cell organelles?

Curriculum Standards

S5L3. Students will diagram and label parts of various cells

  1. Use magnifiers such as microscopes or hand lenses to observe cells and their structure
  2. Identify parts of a plant cell (membrane, wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, chloroplasts) and of an animal cell (membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus) and determine the function of the parts

ELAGSE5W1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons

  1. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose
  2. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details
  3. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically)
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented

ELAGSE5W2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly

  1. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic
  2. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic

Arts Standards

TAES5.2 Developing scripts through improvisation and other theatrical methods

TAES5.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments

TAES5.7 Integrating various art forms, other content areas, and life experiences, to create theater

Content Vocabulary

  • Cell membrane
  • Cell wall
  • Chloroplast
  • Cytoplasm
  • Function
  • Informational writing
  • Nucleus
  • Opinion
  • Persuasive/persuade
  • Structure

Arts Vocabulary

  • Character
  • Concentration
  • Diction
  • Face-out
  • Facial expression
  • Gesture
  • Monologue
  • Objective
  • Projection
]

Technology Integration

  • Song: Cells by Mr. Parr (Click to watch video)
  • Video Camera/Phone Camera (ability to immediately stream)

Formative Assessment

  • Informational Writing and Science content: (conversation/teacher observation)
  • Students will work collaboratively in groups to determine debate points about why their organelle is best.
  • Create different monologues for organelles in both plant and animal cells.

Summative Assessment

  • Cell Debate Video Self-Assessment (see Downloads): Students will rate themselves on their recorded video debate after it is watched after the debate.
  • Written Reflection (see Downloads)

Materials

Computer (to stream Student video and YouTube video clip), Video Camera/Phone Camera

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

  • Have the song Cells by Mr. Parr playing when walking into the room.
  • Ask students to listen for familiar vocabulary words, and have students write down familiar vocabulary terms.
  • As a class, discuss the vocabulary identified and reinforce the meaning of the words.

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • Place students in small groups and give them each an index card in their group.
  • Each group should have an individual index card for each of the plant cell’s organelles.
  • Tell students that today they will be role-playing and stepping into the role of the particular organelle listed on their card.
  • Direct students to think about character traits that their organelle might possess if brought to life. (Example: the “nucleus” may be bossy and stern based on its function in a cell.)
  • Direct students to write down 3 character traits for their organelle on the backside of the index card.
  • Students introduce themselves and their traits to their peers in their small group applying vocal choices to their characters.
  • Model for students how to use pitch and tempo to change your regular speaking voice.

Suggested vocal exercise:

  • Try saying “Good Morning Class” using a gruff, low voice.
  • Try saying “Good Morning Class” using a high, timid, squeaky voice.
  • Try saying “Good Morning Class” using a smooth, sing-songy voice.
  • Direct students to think about their own organelle character voice and make a vocal choice.

Part 2:

  • Give students the following writing prompt: “Today we are going to pretend that the cell we all live and work in is awarding a promotion to only one organelle. The most important organelle will get the promotion! We will be conducting a debate that determines which organelle is most worthy of a promotion. Before we have the debate you will need to prepare your argument.”
  • The students will then be given a set amount of time to independently work on writing an informational monologue from the viewpoint of that specific organelle as to why they are the most important part of the cell. *An example of a Persuasive Monologue can be found in Downloads.

Part 3:

  • After students have completed their writing, the students will return into their small groups they were placed in during Part 1.
  • Students will come up with discussion points about why their cell part is the most important.
  • As a class, develop a list of questions that students could ask characters during the debate.
  • Direct the questions to stay open-ended enough to really allow students to improvise and express their responses with evidence from their notes.
  • Set up the room for a panel of guests to sit in front of the room in a line of chairs. This group should be one of the small groups that includes all of the different organelles in a cell.
  • Ask that the remaining students step in-role as reporters to ask questions during the debate.
  • The members of the group that was selected to participate in the debate perform their responses to each question in character as their organelles.
  • During the debate, the teacher will use the Assessment (see Downloads) to assess students during the activity.
  • On various days, you can allow for different groups to participate as guests in the debate, sitting in the front of the room.
  • The teacher should be in role as the “moderator” to help facilitate the discussion and the time given to each character to respond to the given question.

Reflection Strategies

Potential Reflection Questions:

  • What acting choices did you make for your organelle? Why?
  • What was the most persuasive point you made during the debate?
  • What would happen if your organelle was not present in the cell?
  • Next time you prepare for a debate, what things do you think are most important for you to think about?
  • Written Reflection Sheet (see Downloads)

Differentiation

Below Grade Level/EL Students:

  • Cue cards for children who have trouble remembering their talking points
  • Sentence Frames for scaffolding the opinion writing

Above Grade Level:

  • Encourage these students to research further in order to add to the debate question: Why is their organelle the most powerful/important in regards to the respiration/photosynthesis cycle that happens in plants? They could also teach and explain their theory to other students.

http://www.vtaide.com/png/photosynthesis.htm

Optional Resources

Song: Cells by Mr. Parr

Great example of debate using cell organelles: Click Here

Appendix (See Downloads)

  • Written Reflection Sheet Project 5
  • Persuasive Monologue example
  • Cell Debate Video Self Assessment

Credits

3D Cell Models

Science and Visual Arts

Description

Students will create a three-dimensional sculpture of an animal or plant cell. They will use various objects and mixed media to work as a group and construct a model. Students will then explore what they notice when they examine a cell from a 3D lens.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Create a model of a plant/animal cell and label the organelles
  • Explain the function of each organelle within the cell

Essential Questions

  • What is the relationship between each organelle?
  • How do the 3-D sculptures of the animal cells compare and contrast to the 3-D sculptures of the plant cells?
  • What new discoveries have you made about the composition of a cell when constructing a three-dimensional sculpture?

Curriculum Standards

S5P1. Students will verify that an object is the sum of its parts

S5L3. Students will diagram and label parts of various cells

  1. Use magnifiers such as microscopes or hand lenses to observe cells and their structure
  2. Identify parts of a plant cell (membrane, wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, chloroplasts) and of an animal cell (membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus) and determine the function of the parts

Arts Standards

VA5PR.1 Creates artworks based on personal experience and selected themes

VA5PR.3 Understands and applies media, techniques, and processes of 3 dimensional works of art using tools and materials in a safe and appropriate manner to develop skills

VA5PR.4 Plans and participates in appropriate exhibitions of artworks.

Content Vocabulary

  • Cell
  • Cell wall
  • Cell membrane
  • Chloroplast
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus
  • Organelle

Arts Vocabulary

  • Media
  • Model
  • Sculpture
  • Techniques
  • Three-dimensional
  • Title

Technology Integration

Formative Assessment

  • Teacher observations and questioning while students are working on constructing their cell sculptures

Summative Assessment

  • Completion of a model of a cell with organelles correctly labeled
  • 3D Cell Model Self-Assessment Checklist (see Downloads)

Suggested Materials

Colored modeling clay or play dough, cotton balls, various size beads, dry beans, dry pasta (various types, colors, sizes), aluminum foil, string, yarn, various sized ribbons, paper clips, markers, pipe cleaners, various size colored pom-poms, toothpicks, toothpick flags with cell organelle names (both plant and animal cells)

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

Review student knowledge of plant and animal cells and their organelles using diagrams:

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • Students begin the artistic process of creating their sculpture/3-D model by first sketching and labeling their plant cell on drawing paper.
  • Students are placed in groups, and students share their sketches with their group members.
  • Students discuss the sketches and together collaborate and create a plan for their group’s sculpture/3-D model.

Part 2:

  • The students will work in groups using the materials provided to create their model of a cell and label the organelle’s parts.
  • Students will use the Self-Assessment Checklist (see Downloads) individually.
  • Students will take a picture of their cell using a class camera or iPad to upload to the class website and email to teacher.

Reflection Strategies

“3-D Cell Model” Self-Assessment Checklist (see Downloads):

  • Students will be required to reflect on their own process of learning and justifying decisions for both science content/artistic decisions.

Differentiation

Option:

  • Teacher will group students accordingly and will also assist groups as needed to ensure models are correct.

Below Grade Level/EL Students:

Above Grade Level:

  • Students will have to make a 3-D model for both the plant and animal cell and label them.

Small Group Instruction

Students will work in small groups to create and label a model of a cell. (Groups can be homogeneous OR heterogeneous according to teacher discretion based on student population.)

Appendix (See Downloads)

  • Written Reflection Sheet Project 5
  • “3-D Cell Model” Self-Assessment Checklist

Credits

Grade 5: Cells Celebrate!

Additional Resources

Prepare: Setting the Stage for Arts Integration (grades 3-5)
Prepare: Arts Integration Written Reflection
Home Activity Questions
Quarter Image
Pre&Post-Test
Jabbawockeez Video

Books

  • Powerful Plants Cells by Rebecca L. Johnson
  • Cells Up Close by Maria Nelson
  • Photosynthesis by Christine Zuchora-Walske

Websites

Additional Videos

Tableau

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Grade 5:
Challenging Changes

CHALLENGING CHANGES

Grade 5: Challenging Changes!

Unit Description

Students will use theatre, music, movement, and the visual arts to observe, analyze and create physical and chemical changes. The unit’s projects will lead students to making comparisons between physical and chemical changes and their various components. This unit and its projects will also focus on the cause and effect of the process of physical and chemical changes. Students will also strengthen their descriptive and opinion writing skills throughout the projects in this “Challenging Changes” unit. Roll up your sleeves and get ready to immerse in some engaging hands-on arts projects that will lead students to mastery of key science concepts and writing skills!

Unit Essential Question

How can comparing and understanding physical and chemical changes help us to understand cause and effect in the world around us?

Real World Context

We study physical and chemical changes because they are in the world around us on a daily basis. We experience changes in matter in many aspects of our life, from the classroom to cooking dinner. Understanding these changes can help us develop day-to-day life skills, and inform ourselves of timely topics such as change and sustainability within our environment.

Cross-Cutting Interdisciplinary Concepts

Cause/Effect
Comparison (Compare and Contrast)
Change

Projects

Project 1: Dance with Atoms
In this project, students will be up on their feet moving and dancing with atoms! They will apply their previously taught knowledge of how molecules move in the three states of matter to represent the movement of the molecules in each state of water. Students should also be able to determine that these changes in matter are physical changes. This particular project goes deeper into analyzing how molecules move using dance integration strategies.

Project 2: Thiebaud’s Tasty Pastries
Students will use visual arts and drama to explore the differences between physical and chemical changes. After learning about the visual art techniques of artist Wayne Thiebaud, students will create a polymer clay pastry. When the pastry art is complete, students will use prior knowledge learned about physical and chemical changes to write a narrative from the point of view of the pastry explaining the physical and chemical changes that are involved in the pastry art-making process.

Project 3: Rap Battles of Changes
In this project, students will use music to explore physical and chemical changes in matter. The project will lead students in comparing and contrasting physical and chemical changes. Students will also strengthen their social skills by working together in groups and developing interpersonal relationship skills by cooperating to work collaboratively on a rap that demonstrates mastery of the science concept.

Project 4: Cooking Show with Mr. & Mrs. Changes
Students will use elements of drama to create a cooking show to dramatize the process of preparing and making foods in the kitchen. This drama will include highlighting the process of foods going through both physical and chemical transformations as they are prepared for an audience to taste. Each student will write their own script for the part they play in the production of the cooking show. Another class will be invited to partner with the class to participate as the audience.

Standards

Curriculum Standards

S5P2. Students will explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.

  1. Investigate physical changes by separating mixtures and manipulating cutting, tearing, folding) paper to demonstrate examples of physical change.
  2. Recognize that the changes in states of water (water vapor/steam, liquid, ice) are due to temperature differences and are examples of physical change.
  3. Investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after chemical reaction to find evidence of change.

CCSS-ELAW.5.2.a Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

ELACC5W3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

  1. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.

ELACC5W4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

ELACC5W5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

ELACC5W6 With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

ELACC5SL4 Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

Arts Standards

DSCO.4 Demonstrates an understanding of dance as it relates to other areas of knowledge.

D5FD.1 Identifies and demonstrates movement elements, skills, and terminology in dance.

  1. Demonstrates accuracy, focus, control, and coordination in performing and creating a spectrum of locomotor sequences performed to music that includes a range of tempos, rhythms, and qualities.
  2. Performs smooth transitions when connecting movements.

M5GM.4 Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments.

  1. Improvise rhythmic patterns using a variety of sound sources and answers to given rhythmic questions

M5GM.9 Understanding music in relation to history and culture.

  1. Perform, listen, move, and/or distinguish between music from various historical periods and cultures from the Civil War to present (different genres).

VA5PR.3 Understands and applies media, techniques, and processes of three-dimensional works of art (e.g., ceramics, sculpture, crafts, mixed-media) using tools and materials in a safe and appropriate manner to develop skills.

  1. Creates ceramic objects demonstrating refinement of the additive or subtractive method. (e.g., pinch method, coil method, relief) and techniques (e.g., score and slip, wedging, slab method, surface texture).

TAES5.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments.

  1. Uses vocal elements such as inflection, pitch, and volume, to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of a character.
  2. Dramatizes literature and original scripts through various dramatic forms such as pantomime, process drama, puppetry, improvisation, plays, and readers’ theatre.

TAES5.2 Developing scripts through improvisation and other theatrical methods.

  1. Uses a playwriting process (e.g., pre-write/pre-play; prepare to write/plan dramatization; write; dramatize; reflect and edit; re-write/play; publish/perform).
  2. Creates an organizing structure appropriate for purpose, audience and context.

TAES5.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments.

  1. Uses vocal elements such as inflection, pitch, and volume, to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of a character.
  2. Uses body and stage movement to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of a character.
  3. Uses imagination to make artistic choices in portraying characters.
  4. Collaborates with an ensemble to create theatre.
  5. Dramatizes literature and original scripts through various dramatic forms such as pantomime, process drama, puppetry, improvisation, plays, and reader’s theatre.

Character Education

Components

In “Cooking with P&C Changes,” the students will present their cooking show to a lower grade-level class. You could pair up your 5th grade class with a 2nd grade class learning “how-to” writing. The 5th grade students could perform their cooking show dramatizing the differences between physical and chemical changes. Then the 5th graders could be directed to assist the 2nd grade students with creating a “how-to” writing piece explaining how to make one of the recipes made on the “show.”

Also, in “Rap Battle,” the topic of respect is brought up throughout the lesson. It is addressed because even though we are “battling,” we still need to be respectful of each other and each other’s ideas.

Attributes

Respect

  • Learning with others
  • Being good listeners
  • Kindness

Summative Assessment Tools

  • Pre/Post Test
  • Compare/Contrast Writing Rubric
  • Narrative Writing Point of View Rubric
  • Physical and Chemical Change Rap Battle Rubric
  • Cooking Show Script and Performance Rubric

Partnering with Fine Arts Teachers

Music Teacher:

  • Providing musical instruments for “Rap Battle” project
  • Providing examples of Found Sounds prior to students doing “Dancing with Atoms” project
  • Differentiation
  • Rhyme scheme and pattern (ex. ABAB) in music in “Rap Battle” project

Visual Arts Teacher:

  • Offer prints/lesson of Wayne Thiebaud Pastry Art (mini-lesson, or extension)

Dance Teacher:

  • Mini-lesson prior to “Dancing with Atoms” project to teach locomotor, non-locomotor, vibratory, etc. (or reinforce if already taught in the classroom)

Appendix (See Additional Resources)

  • Pre-test/Post-test

Credits

U.S. Department of Education
Arts in Education--Model Development and Dissemination Grants Program
Cherokee County (GA) School District and ArtsNow, Inc.
Ideas contributed and edited by:
Carol Steele, Taylor Stewart, Melissa Joy, Shannon Green, Dr. Maribeth Yoder-White, Jessica Espinoza

Dance With Atoms

Science, English Language Arts, Music, and Dance

Description

In this project, students will be up on their feet moving and dancing with atoms! They will apply their previously taught knowledge of how molecules move in the three states of matter to represent the movement of the molecules in each state of water. Students should also be able to determine that these changes in matter are physical changes. This particular project goes deeper into analyzing how molecules move using dance integration strategies.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Analyze how the molecules move inside of the three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas)
  • Use locomotor and non-locomotor movement to display how the molecules move in a solid, liquid, and gas
  • Write a compare and contrast paragraph for the movement of molecules in each state of matter

Essential Questions

  • How do the molecules move in the three states of matter?
  • How do the processes of melting, freezing, condensation/evaporation, and boiling change how the molecules move in matter?
  • How can I write a comparison paragraph comparing the movement of molecules in solids, liquids, and gases?
  • How can I use locomotor and non-locomotor movement to demonstrate how the molecules move in a solid, liquid, and gas?

Curriculum Standards

S8P5. Students will recognize characteristics of gravity, electricity, and magnetism as major kinds of forces acting in nature.

  1. Demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of series and parallel circuits and how they transfer energy.

S5P2 Students will explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.

  1. Recognize that the changes in state of water (water vapor/steam, liquid, ice) are due to temperature differences and are examples of physical change.

ELAW.5.2.

  1. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

Arts Standards

DSCO.4 Demonstrates an understanding of dance as it relates to other areas of knowledge.

D5FD.1 Identifies and demonstrates movement elements, skills, and terminology in dance.

  1. Demonstrates accuracy, focus, control, and coordination in performing and creating a spectrum of locomotor sequences performed to music that includes a range of tempos, rhythms, and qualities.
  2. Performs smooth transitions when connecting movements.

M5GM.4 Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniment.

  1. Improvise rhythmic patterns using a variety of sound sources and answers to given rhythmic questions.

Content Vocabulary

  • Molecules
  • Solids
  • Liquids
  • Gases
  • Melting
  • Freezing
  • Condensation
  • Boiling
  • Evaporation
  • Comparison
  • Physical change

Arts Vocabulary

  • Locomotor: movement that travels through space
  • Non-locomotor: movement that does not travel through space
  • Pathway: designs traced on the floor as a dancer travels across space; the designs traced in the air as a dancer moves various body parts
  • Shape: an interesting and interrelated arrangement of body parts of one dancer; the visual makeup or molding of the body parts of a single dancer; the overall visible appearance of a group of dancers
  • Vibratory: a quality of movement characterized by rapidly repeated bursts of percussive movements, like a jitter
  • Legato: smooth, connected sounds (articulation)
  • Marcato: stressed or accented sounds
  • Ostinato: a repeated pattern
  • Pitch: refers to the highness or lowness of sound
  • Staccato: short, detached sounds
  • Tempo: speed of the beat
  • Unison: single melody; all instruments or voices sing/play the same notes

Formative Assessment

  • Teacher Observation of Student activity: Teachers will observe students throughout the molecule movement activity to check for understanding
  • Quick Write Compare and Contrast of how the molecules move in a solid, liquid, and gas

Summative Assessment

  • Compare and Contrast Writing Rubric (see Downloads)

Materials

  • Paper, pencil (for activating strategy and compare/contrast quick write), Fictional Water Stories (See Downloads)

Activating Strategy

  • Students will work individually to complete a 3-minute Brainstorming Session competition. Students will be given one minute to list as many solids as they can. This can be done in small groups of 3-5 students and on one large piece of chart paper given out to each individual group.
  • Once completed, the students will then share with the class. The group who has the most solids listed correctly will win the competition! The class will then repeat this process with liquids and later gases. (You could also split the classroom into 3 groups and give each group a different state of matter to speed up this activity, if needed).
  • Remind students throughout that they will need to listen for accuracy of their classmates lists.

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • Review the dance vocabulary that will be used in this particular project.

Part 2:

  • The students will be split into various heterogeneous leveled teams where they will demonstrate the movement of molecules in solids, liquids, and gases.
  • The teacher will then instruct the students that they are to use movement to express molecules within a solid. The solid molecules will be close together and demonstrate vibratory, non-locomotor movement.
  • The teacher should be consistently reminding the students throughout of the definitions of locomotive, non-locomotive, vibratory, and other dance vocabulary.
  • The teacher will then instruct the students to act like the molecules in a liquid. The liquid molecules will move slightly farther apart using locomotive, fluid movement. Be sure to remind students to use whole body movements during the liquid and gas phases.
  • The teacher will then instruct the class to become the molecules in a gas. The gas molecules will move quickly, bouncing off of each other and the walls, moving very far apart.
  • After the students have mastered the movement of the molecules in each of the states of matter, the teacher will then instruct the students to begin moving between the states of matter as they are called out. For example, as the teacher yells “Melting!” the students must transition from the solid to the liquid.
  • Once this is demonstrated by multiple student groups, the students will then add a sound to their transitional movement. The students may use body percussion (i.e. using mouth, claps, pats, clicks, stomp) to demonstrate the transitions between phases and the tempo, as related to the molecule movement. (allegro = fast tempo = gas; moderato = medium tempo = liquid; adagio = slow = solid)

Part 3:

  • The students will be instructed to write a compare and contrast quick-write, comparing how the molecules move inside of a solid, liquid, and gas, and their transitionary states.
  • Also, students will compare and contrast the different movements used to act out the atoms in a molecule and include these in their writing.
  • Students will be assessed through a Compare and Contrast Writing Rubric (see Downloads).

Classroom Tips:

  • Teachers should make sure that there is enough wide open space in the classroom where students can form groups and move around as needed.

Reflection Questions

  • How did my body movements help me to display the way that molecules move inside of a solid, liquid, and gas?
  • How did the sounds that I made help me to understand how molecules move inside of a solid, liquid, and gas?

Differentiation

Accelerated:

  • These students could write their own story to demonstrate a drop of water transitioning through the three states of matter from the point of view of the water droplet. The student can write from the point of view of the water droplet and incorporate fine arts movement vocabulary in their story (such as locomotor, non-locomotor, tempo, etc.). See Downloads for examples of Fictional Water Stories.

Remedial/EL Students:

  • In the Activating Strategy of this project the teacher could use the technique of “Inspiration of Ideas” by using smaller groups, table groups, or pairs for remedial/EL to brainstorm together without the pressure of being timed. Perhaps you do this a day prior to the relay race.
  • During the Reflection part of this project the following modifications could be made: place students in small groups, assist with Guided writing, provide sentence starters, provide graphic organizers, a word bank based on content vocabulary, a paragraph frame, or modify the length/writing assignment based on student needs.

Additional Resources

Books

  • What Are Atoms? by Lisa Trumbauer
  • Atoms and Molecules by Molly Alaian

Online Book

Appendix (See Downloads)

  • Compare and Contrast Writing Rubric
  • Fictional Water Stories (Accelerated Extension)

Credits

Thiebaud’s Tasty Pastries

Science, English Language Arts, Visual Arts, and Theater

Description

Students will use visual arts and drama to explore the differences between physical and chemical changes. After learning about the visual art techniques of artist Wayne Thiebaud, students will create a polymer clay pastry. When the pastry art is complete, students will use prior knowledge learned about physical and chemical changes to write a narrative from the point of view of the pastry explaining the physical and chemical changes that are involved in the pastry art-making process.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Identify the differences between physical and chemical changes
  • Use the visual arts to create a 3D polymer clay pastry to demonstrate my understanding of the differences between physical and chemical changes
  • Write a narrative from the point of view of an object to explain the physical and chemical changes in the art process

Essential Questions

  • What is the difference between physical and chemical changes?
  • How do I utilize visual arts to investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after a chemical reaction to find evidence of change?

Curriculum Standards

S5P2 Students will explain the difference between a Physical change and a chemical change.

  1. Investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after chemical reaction to find evidence of change

ELACC5W3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

  1. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.

ELACC5W4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

ELACC5W5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

ELACC5W6 With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

Arts Standards

VA5PR.3 Understands and applies media, techniques, and processes of three-dimensional works of art (e.g., ceramics, sculpture, crafts, mixed-media) using tools and materials in a safe and appropriate manner to develop skills.

  1. Creates ceramic objects demonstrating refinement of the additive or subtractive method (e.g., pinch method, coil method, relief) and techniques (e.g., score and slip, wedging, slab method, surface texture).

TAES5.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments.

  1. Uses vocal elements such as inflection, pitch, and volume, to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of a character.
  2. Dramatizes literature and original scripts through various dramatic forms such as pantomime, process drama, puppetry, improvisation, plays, and Reader's’ Theatre.

Content Vocabulary

  • Physical change
  • Chemical change
  • Reaction
  • Substance
  • Evidence

Arts Vocabulary

  • Polymer clay: type of clay that is manufactured and contains plastic rather than coming from the earth
  • Form: an element of art that is three-dimensional and encloses volume, i.e. cubes, spheres, and cylinders are examples of various forms
  • Coil: a curling of material in a circular fashion
  • Surface texture: the surface quality or “feel” of an object, such as roughness, smoothness, or softness. Actual texture can be felt while simulated textures are implied by the way the artist renders areas of the picture.
  • Additive: sculptural process of manipulating space by adding material to reveal a given form
  • Form: objects that are three-dimensional having length, width and height. They can be viewed from many sides. Forms take up space and volume.
  • Subtractive: a sculptural process of manipulating a solid mass by taking away material to reveal a given form
  • Monologue: a long speech by a given character
  • Diction: using a “crisp & clear” actor voice that can be understood by everyone watching and listening
  • Inflection: the modulation of intonation or pitch
  • Pitch: highness or lowness of sound
  • Volume: loudness or softness of sound

Technology Integration

  • Students utilize technology to research a Wayne Thiebaud painting as a basis for their pastry art
  • Students utilize technology to type the narrative writing piece
  • Chatterpix

Formative Assessment

  • Teacher can monitor students through observation for understanding the physical and chemical changes through the art process
  • Question to ask during the art process:
    • What piece of Wayne Thiebaud’s art influenced you most when creating your own pastry?
    • Why did you choose that particular piece of Wayne Thiebaud’s art?
    • What part of creating an art piece out of clay is a physical/chemical change?
    • What is the difference between a physical and chemical change?
    • How does a physical change and chemical change occur?

Summative Assessment

  • Narrative Writing Piece: Students will write a monologue from the point of view of the clay explaining the physical and chemical changes the clay goes through in the art process
  • Narrative Clay Monologue Rubric (see Downloads)
  • Written Reflection (see Downloads)

Materials

  • Polymer clay, toaster oven, Wayne Thiebaud’s Paintings PowerPoint (see Downloads) with information about the artist and examples of his paintings, Narrative Clay Monologue Rubric (see Downloads)

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

  • Teacher will introduce the artist Wayne Thiebaud and his paintings with a PowerPoint encouraging students to look at the Geometric forms represented in Thiebaud’s work.
  • Teacher will also ask students to notice the details in the pastries he depicted.
  • Teacher will lead a discussion with students about how physical and chemical changes occur through cooking and baking and creating clay art.

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • The teacher will begin with a mini-lesson introducing the artist Wayne Thiebaud and his visual arts depicting pastries and various desserts.
  • The students will research a Wayne Thiebaud painting to influence their own clay model.

Part 2:

  • Students will be given polymer clay and will create a mini-visual depiction of one of Wayne Thiebaud’s art pieces.
  • The teacher will explain to the students that working with polymer clay is different than working with clay that comes from the earth. Polymer clay contains plastic and is a different consistency.
  • The teacher will demonstrate how to create forms out of the clay to create pastries.
  • Then students will mold and mend their clay until they arrive at a completed piece of pastry art The teacher will discuss with the students throughout the artistic process of how each step of the project is a physical or chemical change.
  • To complete the process, the pastry art will be placed in a toaster oven to go through a chemical change (cooking the clay), becoming a new substance.

Part 3:

  • Students will write a narrative from the viewpoint of the clay using sensory details. Included in the narrative will be a description and identification of the physical and chemical changes that occurred during the making and baking of the pastry art. Student writing will be evaluated using the Narrative Clay Monologue Rubric. (see Downloads)

Part 4:

  • Students will present their clay monologue using vocal elements--inflection, pitch, and volume--to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of the character (clay).
  • Other classroom students may provide constructive feedback on theatrical delivery (diction, facial expression, tone, volume, pitch, etc.) using theatre arts vocabulary.

Classroom Tips:

  • Teachers should monitor students during cooking times of clay pastries. Students who are waiting for clay to be baked may begin working on their monologue writing to accompany the clay pastries artwork.

Reflection Questions

  • How did the art process help me understand the difference between physical and chemical changes?
  • The vocal element I used during the monologue was ______________________. I made this choice because...

Differentiation

Accelerated:

  • These students could design a menu depicting their pastries in a café based on the art of Wayne Thiebaud. The students could use clipart or other visual arts mediums.
  • These students could also write a song to accompany their narrative story. The tempo of the song/sounds included in the song should accurately reflect the tempo changes that the molecules would go through during the process.

Additional Resources

Books

  • Changing Matter: Understanding Physical and Chemical Changes by Tracy Nelson Maurer
  • Make It Change! by Anna Claybourne

Websites

Appendix (See Downloads)

  • Narrative Clay Monologue Rubric
  • Wayne Thiebaud’s Paintings PowerPoint

Credits

Rap Battle of Changes

Science, English Language Arts, and Music

Description

In this project, students will use music to explore physical and chemical changes in matter. The project will lead students in comparing and contrasting physical and chemical changes. Students will also strengthen their social skills by working together in groups and developing interpersonal relationship skills by cooperating to work collaboratively on a rap that demonstrates mastery of the science concept.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Explain that a physical change is a change that is reversible and does not result in a new substance
  • Explain that a chemical change is a change that cannot be reversed and results in the creation of a new substance
  • Use music to demonstrate my understanding of physical and chemical changes

Essential Questions

  • How can I use music to show the differences between a physical and chemical change?
  • How can I analyze the differences between a physical and chemical change?

Curriculum Standards

S5P2 Students will explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change

  1. Investigate physical changes by separating mixtures and manipulating (cutting, tearing, folding) paper to demonstrate examples of physical change.
  2. Recognize that the changes in state of water (water vapor/steam, liquid, ice) are due to temperature differences and are examples of physical change.
  3. Investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after a chemical reaction to find evidence of change.

ELAW.5.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

Arts Standards

M5GM.9 Understanding music in relation to history and culture.

  1. Perform, listen, move, and/or distinguish between music from various historical periods and cultures from the Civil War to present (different genres).

Content Vocabulary

  • Physical change
  • Chemical change
  • Reaction
  • Molecules
  • Atoms
  • Matter
  • States of matter

Arts Vocabulary

  • Beat: the pulse felt underlying the music
  • Body percussion: sounds produced by striking or scraping parts of the body; typically includes snapping, clapping, patting, or stamping
  • Rhythm: combinations of long and short, or even or uneven sounds that establish a musical continuum and convey a sense of movement
  • Tempo: the speed at which a music piece is performed

Technology Integration

  • Possible differentiation: Quaver to make the beats for accelerated students (composition)

Formative Assessment

  • Teacher Observation of students during process of writing and performing

Summative Assessment

  • Physical and Chemical Change Rap Battle Rubric (see Downloads)

Materials

Whiteboard/SmartBoard/ActivBoard (for whole group T-Chart), poster board/white paper (one for each group to use when students create the T-Chart in their small groups before putting ideas together as a class), notebook paper, pencil/pen

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

The teacher will split the students into groups and have the students work collaboratively to create a T-Chart comparing and contrasting physical and chemical changes. Students will need at least 3 comparisons on each side of the T-Chart. Once some time has passed, the teacher will lead the students in compiling their ideas into a large whole group T-Chart. This activating strategy serves the purpose of reminding the students what they have learned from this unit, all in one culminating chart, making it easier for the students to process and see visually. Some examples of differences that students might compare are burning wood (chemical change), or tearing paper (physical change).

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • The teacher will ask all the students to get into groups of 3-5 students.
  • The teacher will then ask the students to come up with 2 different body movements, or sounds. (At this time, the teacher can remind students of the definition of locomotor, non-locomotor, and body percussion.)
  • Once the students have their two movements as a group, the teacher will instruct the students to put these movements into some kind of pattern: AB, AB, AA, BB, etc... For example, if students snap and stomp as their two movements, their pattern can be “snap, stomp, snap, stomp” or “snap, snap, stomp, stomp,” etc.
  • The teacher will then instruct the students about the rhyme scheme in which they have created. For example, the students could have created an “ABAB” pattern, or a “AABB” pattern, etc. (Teachers can reference poetry unit if it has been previously taught). Remind students that these types of patterns are seen throughout music.
  • The teacher will then explain that each group of students will either be writing a rap referring to physical changes or chemical changes and that, once completed, the students will battle with their created songs. The teacher will instruct that all students are to use an “AABB” pattern within their rap.

Part 2:

  • Students will then get together in their groups and analyze the T-Chart from the previous part of the lesson. Each group must come up with 2-4 different points that they feel are the most important about their change (1/2 class is physical and 1/2 class is chemical). For example, the physical change group of students might feel like they need to focus on an example, the fact that a physical change can be reversed, and shape change as some of their points of importance.

Part 3:

  • Students will then work collaboratively to create various stanzas into a rap, using an AABB pattern in each stanza about their specific type of change.
  • Each group must have 4 lines in each stanza using the AABB pattern, and must have 4 stanzas in their entire rap.
  • The students will work on completing these together in their group.
  • The teacher will explain that on the day of performance, that one group will perform one stanza, then the next group, and back to the original group, etc.—until both groups have completed their entire rap composition. (EX. chemical change stanza, physical change stanza, chemical change stanza, physical change stanza, etc.)

Part 4:

  • Students will share their raps about physical, or chemical changes, and will “battle” back and forth, with each group sharing a stanza at a time, as mentioned above.
  • As a writing activity, the students will be required to write a quick 2-minute-write informational paragraph containing at least 3 facts about the other type of change that was presented. For example, if I was writing for physical change, I would have to write a quick-write presenting three facts about chemical changes from the other team’s rap.

Classroom Tips:

  • A character education component could be addressed around the concept of being an ensemble when performing in a large group. This includes listening to one another, taking turns listening and speaking, and most importantly respecting your peer’s ideas and abilities. These ensemble skills take us far inside and outside the classroom.

Reflection Questions

The teacher will give each group of students the following questions and ask them to discuss their answers orally as a group, before sharing orally with the whole class.

  1. How did writing a rap help me process and better understand the information about my type of change (physical or chemical)?
  2. How did listening to the other groups rap help me better understand either a physical, or chemical change?
  3. What would I change about my rap to make the other group better understand physical, or chemical, changes?

Differentiation

Accelerated:

  • These students could come up with a rap that demonstrates a substance that first goes through a physical change and then a chemical change. For example, first ripping a piece of paper and then burning it. The students would have to identify which change was physical and which was chemical and what attribute would characterize it as such.
  • These students could add music through found sounds, instruments, or Quaver (an online music production source) along with movements to accompany their rap.
  • These students could also write a persuasive essay about why either a chemical or physical change is “better.” They would have to identify criteria on what makes the change better and evaluate each change on how it fits the criteria.

Remedial/EL Students:

  • Some of the stanzas of the rap, such as the chorus could be written by the teacher. Students still need to learn and perform the verses (integrating their science vocabulary). By having some already pre-written may help make the task at hand feel manageable and support students reaching success.

Appendix (See Downloads)

  • Physical and Chemical Changes Rap Battle Rubric

Credits

Cooking Show with Mr. & Mrs. Change

Science, English Language Arts, and Theater

Description

Students will use elements of drama to create a cooking show to dramatize the process of preparing and making foods in the kitchen. This drama will include highlighting the process of foods going through both physical and chemical transformations as they are prepared for an audience to taste. Each student will write their own script for the part they play in the production of the cooking show. Another class will be invited to partner with the class to participate as the audience.

Learning Targets

“I Can…”

  • Identify the difference between a physical change and a chemical change
  • Use theatrical arts to demonstrate my understanding of the properties of a substance before, during, and after chemical reaction to find evidence of change

Essential Questions

  • What is the difference between a physical change and a chemical change?
  • How can I utilize the theater to analyze a substance before, during, and after chemical reaction to find evidence of change?

Curriculum Standards

S5P2 Students will explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.

  1. Investigate physical changes by separating mixtures and manipulating cutting, tearing, folding) paper to demonstrate examples of physical change.
  2. Investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after chemical reaction to find evidence of change.

ELACC5W4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

ELACC5W5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

ELACC5SL4 Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

Arts Standards

TAES5.2 Developing scripts through improvisation and other theatrical methods.

  1. Uses a playwriting process (e.g., pre-write/pre-play; prepare to write/plan dramatization; write; dramatize; reflect and edit; rewrite/play; publish/perform).
  2. Creates an organizing structure appropriate for purpose, audience and context.

TAES5.3 Acting by developing, communicating, and sustaining roles within a variety of situations and environments.

  1. Uses vocal elements such as inflection, pitch, and volume, to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of a character.
  2. Uses body and stage movement to communicate the thoughts, emotions, and actions of a character.
  3. Uses imagination to make artistic choices in portraying characters.
  4. Collaborates with an ensemble to create theatre.
  5. Dramatizes literature and original scripts through various dramatic forms such as pantomime, process drama, puppetry, improvisation, plays, and Reader's Theatre.

Content Vocabulary

  • Physical change
  • Chemical change
  • Mixture
  • Evidence
  • Reaction
  • Molecules
  • Atoms
  • Matter

Arts Vocabulary

  • Script: the piece of writing that shows direction to the cast within a theater piece
  • Character: the actor or actress in a specified role
  • Props: items that actors use in a performance to depict real-life objects. Props can also be used to help students brainstorm for their writing or character study
  • Dialogue: a conversation between two or more persons
  • Inflection: the modulation of intonation, or pitch in the voice
  • Volume: the loudness or softness of sound
  • Diction: using a “crisp & clear” actor voice that can be understood by everyone watching and listening

Technology Integration

  • Technology will be used to record and edit the cooking show for students to view.

Formative Assessment

  • Teacher can monitor students through anecdotal notes for understanding of theater elements, the differences between physical and chemical changes, and teamwork.
  • Prompts for after the cooking show has been performed:
    1. Compare and contrast making a fruit salad and waffles discussing the physical and chemical changes that occur in both.
    2. Analyze the importance of teamwork in the production of a cooking show.

Summative Assessment

  • Cooking Show Script and Performance Rubric (see Downloads)

Materials

Student scripts, various types of fruits cut into pieces, 2 bowls, 2 spoons, waffle ingredients, waffle iron, small bowl and spoons for samples

Activating Strategy (5-10 min)

The teacher will lead a discussion about cooking shows. During this discussing use large chart paper to capture notes on what is discussed. If desired, the teacher can show a short clip of a cooking show and discuss the various elements seen. For example, the students might notice that they are having conversation and explaining what they are doing throughout the cooking process. The teacher might also have students note that the cooking show has different parts such as a host, a chef, an assistant, camera crew, etc...The teacher also should highlight how the performers are using pitch, volume, diction, and other theater strategies within the cooking show.

Main Activity

Part 1:

  • Cooking Show Brainstorming Activating Strategy (see above for directions)
  • The students will write a script using various theater techniques to work on a cooking show that they will present to another grade level. The students will explain the physical and chemical changes that occur in the cooking process (ex: fruit salad—physical; cooking waffles—chemical change). Direct students to think of a meal and its courses that include some physically changed courses and some courses that underwent chemical changes.
  • The students will be placed into jigsaw groups based on their tasks in the cooking show. For example: The groups could be waffle makers, fruit salad makers, Coffee makers, and scrambled egg makers.
  • In those groups, the students will write their scripts including how they plan to prepare their part of the breakfast for their portion of the show.
  • Once the scripts are completed, the students will jigsaw into their filming groups, which will consist of the different courses within the meal being dramatized.

Part 2:

  • The students will then pair with a 2nd grade class to share their cooking shows.
  • There will be multiple cooking shows happening at the same time within the classroom (this will be more time effective). The students will use their written scripts to present using inflection, pitch, and volume. Partnering with a 2nd grade class would allow them to incorporate one of their standards by having them create a how-to writing explaining the process for making the food that they observed being created.

Classroom Tips:

  • If classroom space with multiple presentations is an issue, consider finding common space, such as the cafeteria, gym, or library for multiple groups to present.
  • The 2nd grade class should also be split into multiple groups to watch and preview the cooking shows.

Reflection Questions

  • How did using theater elements to create a cooking show help me understand the differences between physical and chemical changes?
  • My role in the cooking show was ________________________. My role was important to the production of the cooking show because…

Differentiation

Accelerated:

  • These students could design a menu for a restaurant and have foods in categories such as physical changes and chemical changes. Students should have at least 3 foods in each category. In order to tie in to a previous lesson, the menu art could mimic that of Wayne Thiebaud. If possible, a third category of foods could include those that go through both a physical and chemical change.
  • These students could also create a theme song for their cooking show. The theme song should include statements about the different foods that will be used in the show (fruit salad and waffles) and how the preparation of these foods will demonstrate physical and chemical changes.

Remedial/EL Students:

  • These students could use drawings and gestures to express their own ideas.
  • These students could also use picture examples with words on the back for reading support.

Additional Resources

Books

  • The Solid Truth About Matter by Mark Weakland
  • Pancakes, Pancakes! by Eric Carle

Websites

Appendix (See Downloads)

  • Cooking Show Script and Performance Rubric

Credits

Grade 5: Challenging Changes

Additional Resources

Books

  • Changing Matter: Understanding Physical and Chemical Changes by Tracy Nelson Maurer
  • Make It change! by Anna Claybourne
  • The Solid Truth about Matter by Mark Weakland
  • Pancakes, Pancakes! by Eric Carle

Websites